A Brief History of the Birth Control Pill

And How the Pill Works

Woman taking contraceptive pill
Ian Hooton/SPL/Science Photo Library/Getty Images

Oral contraceptives, commonly known as birth control pills or just "the pill", were approved by the FDA on June 23, 1960. The pill has revolutionized women's health over the last five decades. Here's a brief history of the birth control pill and how it works.

The First Birth Control Pill

The first birth control was called Enovid and was manufactured by Searle. The 1960s woman, as well as women today, liked the pill because it provided a reversible method of birth control that was, and still is today, almost 100 percent effective when taken as directed.

Birth Control and Women's Liberation

The approval of the birth control played a major role in the sexual liberation of women that took place during the 1960s. For the first time, women were free to enjoy spontaneous sex without fear of pregnancy. Today it's estimated that more than 10 million women use the pill.

How The Pill Works

Oral contraceptives work by suppressing ovulation so that no egg is released by the ovaries for fertilization by sperm. Ovulation is suppressed through the actions of the hormones — estrogen alone or a combination of estrogen and progestin — that the birth control pill contains.

The birth control pill doesn't just prevent unplanned pregnancy, it also offers a number of other benefits to the women who use it. In fact, women who take the pill for at least one year are 40 percent less likely to develop uterine cancer and ovarian cancer. Other important benefits of the birth control pill include regulating irregular periods, controlling acne, reducing menstrual cramps and relieving the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

The hormones contained in oral contraceptives also provide a protective effect against pelvic inflammatory disease, a major cause of infertility. This protection is caused by the increased thickness of the cervical mucous that occurs when oral contraceptives are used. The thickened cervical mucous helps to keep bacteria from entering the vagina, and possibly the uterus and fallopian tubes, where pelvic inflammatory disease can occur.

Other Forms of Birth Control

Oral contraceptives are just one form of effective birth control currently on the market. Check out these resources for more information about contraceptive methods:

All About the IUD

Compare Birth Control Effectiveness

Effectiveness of Permanent Birth Control Methods

Everything You Need to Know About Birth Control Pills

Types of Birth Control Methods

What is Contraception?

What is Tubal Ligation?

Sources:

Jones, J., Mosher, W., & Daniels, K. (2012). Current Contraceptive Use in the United States, 2006–2010, and Changes in Patterns of Use Since 1995. National Health Statistics Report, (60). Retrieved January 23, 2016.

Planned Parenthood, Is the Pill Good for You?, 01/21/05, accessed 07/17/06

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