6 Conditions That Marijuana Can Mimic

The Different Faces of Weed

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As drugs go, especially naturally occurring drugs, marijuana is one of the most complicated. Made from the cannabis plant, it contains more than 113 active ingredients, called cannabinoids. These cannabinoids all affect the body in some way, and not always in the same way. Those who are well versed in the different choices have the ability to choose the sort of high they want.

Those who are new to the scene, however, can be surprised by the reaction they feel.

There are plenty of stories of folks trying weed for the first time—or more precisely, the first time since college—and discovering that the high isn't exactly what they expected. A quick internet search will find a bevy of 911 calls from people who didn't quite enjoy the high they were feeling.

Marijuana is touted as the safest of all recreational drugs. There is great debate about that, but the good news is that deaths from marijuana only are rarely reported. Marijuana used in conjunction with other drugs, however, is a much bigger problem. Even alcohol potentiates the effects of weed significantly. After hearing how mellow marijuana is supposed to be, many folks who try it for the first time are surprised by their reactions.

More Harsh Than Mellow

Some people go to the hospital thinking they've had a medical emergency. The various psychoactive substances in marijuana are likely to create all sorts of different reactions to its consumption and even the way the drug is consumed makes a difference.

Eating a marijuana brownie metabolizes the weed differently than smoking a joint, which means the same bud could have different effects when eaten than it does when smoked. It also takes longer to feel the effects after ingesting the drug than it does after smoking it, which often leads newcomers to eat too much, thinking they aren't getting anywhere.

When the weed starts kicking in, it comes on all at once.

The two most well-known cannabinoids in pot are tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Medical authorities aren't entirely sure how each works exactly, but it's generally believed that the paranoia and anxiety produced by THC is partly offset by the anti-anxiety properties of CBD. Some people are using CBD extract medicinally for things like seizure control and anxiety reduction with some success. Other folks go for the most extreme concentrations of THC they can find, which leads to a high that looks more like that of a stimulant than the sedative most people expect marijuana to be.

To meet the demand, modern marijuana farmers are very good at improving their yields. The same advances in agriculture that have increased food production per acre—and even per plant—around the world have also increased the concentration of THC in weed. THC in confiscated cannabis samples increased from 3.4 percent in 1993 to 8.8 percent in 2008. On top of that, there are other forms of marijuana besides the usual bud. Hash oil, sometimes called butane honey oil or BHO, is known for being extremely potent, up to 80 percent THC. The more THC in the product, the more anxiety and stimulant-like reaction can be expected.

Not only is there great agricultural advances pushing the limits of farming efficiency, there are also synthetic copies of marijuana. K2 or Spice are examples of synthetic cannabinoid compounds that mimic the effects of natural weed and act on the same cannabinoid receptors in the body. It sounds great to say we can make weed instead of grow it, but the reality is that you really don't know what you're getting. Beyond the fact that weed can mimic certain medical conditions, synthetic cannabinoids might have other drugs either as part of their chemical make-up, or can be laced with other drugs to enhance their effects.

Can Weed Feel Like a Heart Attack?

With well over a hundred more cannabinoids in the marijuana compound besides THC and CBD, there's a whole lot we don't know about how weed affects the body. Because of the fact that it gets you high, scientists have focused on the effects of marijuana on the brain and central nervous system. But, evidence shows that weed also affects the heart.

There are several documented cases of marijuana causing heart rhythm disturbances and even one death through a fatal arrhythmia. It's very possible these patients could have had pre-existing cardiac conditions, even if they didn't know it, but the weed certainly affected the way their hearts were functioning while they were high. In at least one case of atrial fibrillation, the effect persisted after the high wore off.

With the cardiac effects of marijuana largely still not well understood, the fact that some folks may feel as if they are having a heart attack after consuming weed is not to be ignored. Marijuana dulls pain; in fact, it's one of the many benefits touted for medicinal use. So, even if the weed is affecting the heart in a negative way that could lead to chest pain when sober, the patient might not feel the pain. You can't ignore feelings of distress, including palpitations or chest pressure, when taking marijuana. The fact is, it might not be mimicking a heart attack so much as causing one.

Hypoglycemia

Weed slows down your mental processes. It's one of the main parts of marijuana that users remember (well, if you can remember anything). It's that slow, gentle, absentmindedness that is the butt of so many pot jokes.

Imagine a diabetic patient smoking a little weed and having someone visit. The slow, halting movements and difficulty finding words are exactly what you'd expect to see during a bout of low blood sugar. Just don't reach for the pot brownies to help fix the problem.

Is All That Vomiting From Pot or Gastroenteritis?

Pot makes some folks vomit. It even has a name: cannabinoid hyperemesis. Typically associated more with chronic marijuana use, cannabinoid hyperemesis leads to severe, uncontrollable vomiting. Some patients have discovered that hot showers can reduce the nausea temporarily, but the only surefire way to completely stop the condition is to stop smoking weed.

Not a lot is known about cannaboid hyperemesis. While it is known to affect chronic tokers, uncontrollable vomiting has been documented in other examples of folks who simply took a lot of marijuana. There is a debate about whether or not you can actually overdose on weed, but the medical community generally agrees there is such a thing as marijuana poisoning. Vomiting is one of the effects that gets mentioned often.

For folks who start vomiting after smoking marijuana, the presence of vomiting while high could be easily mistaken for some infection or gastroenteritis. It's very important to be honest about the use of cannabis. Those around the patient are going to have a really hard time identifying the cause of the nausea unless they are aware of the patient's marijuana consumption. This is particularly bad news for the folks who started smoking weed to treat their nausea, a common use by chemotherapy patients.

Indigestion Too

Besides vomiting, pot is also known for causing a fair amount of heartburn among those who use it the most. One theory is that it relaxes the GI tract, which leads to a migration of acids out of the stomach and into the esophagus.

There are a few options that chronic users can take to try to calm their indigestion, but the only guaranteed cure is to stop smoking. 

Panic Attacks

While a true panic attack is psychological in nature, weed can definitely push the panic button. It's not unheard of to see patients hyperventilating and scared of nothing in particular when high. Unfortunately, like many other adverse reactions of marijuana, time is the only cure. There isn't an antidote on the market that will reverse the effects of marijuana. Indeed, for those who are susceptible to the panicky feelings that weed might produce, abstinence is the only option.

THC's anxiety-inducing properties are notorious. Even in the past, when the amount of THC in a joint was nowhere near as potent as today, some folks didn't like the way weed made them feel as if the police were coming any minute. The anxiety felt by consuming a drug that was unequivocally illegal was probably worse than in today's more tolerant environment. Whatever the barriers to marijuana use that have been removed, however, are probably offset by the potency of the product.

Marijuana Psychosis

One step beyond panic is paranoia. It's a fine line, but when weed takes you there, it might not bring you back. Psychosis that is induced by marijuana doesn't always subside when the pot is all metabolized. This isn't really mimicking the condition as much as creating it. In most cases of THC-induced psychosis, cessation of use is the eventual cure, but there are examples of permanent damage that results in long-term psychological changes.

This is one reason to definitely stay away from the highest concentrations of THC. Whether you choose to use or not, pushing the THC limit can be a dangerous game.

Sources:

Favrat, B., Ménétrey, A., Augsburger, M., Rothuizen, L., Appenzeller, M., & Buclin, T. et al. (2005). Two cases of "cannabis acute psychosis" following the administration of oral cannabis. BMC Psychiatry5(1). doi:10.1186/1471-244x-5-17

Kai MacDonald, K. (2016). WHY NOT POT?: A Review of the Brain-based Risks of Cannabis. Innovations In Clinical Neuroscience13(3-4), 13. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4911936/

Mehmedic Z, Chandra S, Slade D, Denham H, Foster S, Patel AS, Ross SA, Khan IA, ElSohly MA. Potency trends of Δ9-THC and other cannabinoids in confiscated cannabis preparations from 1993 to 2008. J Forensic Sci. 2010 Sep;55(5):1209-17. doi: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2010.01441.x.

Orsini, J., Blaak, C., Rajayer, S., Gurung, V., Tam, E., & Morante, J. et al. (2016). Prolonged cardiac arrest complicating a massive ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction associated with marijuana consumption. Journal Of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives6(4), 31695. doi:10.3402/jchimp.v6.31695

Sullivan, S. (2010). Cannabinoid hyperemesis. Canadian Journal Of Gastroenterology24(5), 284.

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