What You Should Know About Skin Cancer Biopsy

A Guide to the Various Types of Skin Cancer Biopsy Procedures

Doctor examining woman with melanoma
Doctor examining woman with melanoma. Getty Images / Peter Dazeley / Photographer's Choice

Here is what you should know about skin cancer biopsy. If your doctor thinks that a lesion on your skin might be cancerous, he or she will take a sample from the suspicious area for examination called a skin biopsy or skin cancer biopsy. The skin biopsy is then processed and examined to diagnose the suspected skin cancer.

If the biopsy comes back positive for skin cancer, your doctor will determine the best treatment strategy for the cancer type (nonmelanoma or melanoma).

Different methods for skin cancer biopsy can be used, and the choice depends on the size of the affected area, the type of suspected cancer, and its location on your body.

Types of Skin Biopsy Procedures

Skin biopsies are generally done using a local anesthetic (numbing medication), which is injected into the area with a small needle. You will likely feel a small pinch and a little stinging as the anesthetic is injected, but the area will quickly go numb and you should not feel any pain during the actual biopsy procedure. Most types of skin biopsy leave at least a small a scar. Since different methods produce different types of wounds, you should ask your doctor about the chosen biopsy procedure and what you can expect. The following are the three most common types of skin cancer biopsy:

1. Shave Biopsy

After the injection of anesthetic, the doctor "shaves" off the top layers of the skin (the epidermis and the outer part of the dermis) with a surgical blade.

A shave biopsy is useful in the diagnosis of basal cell or squamous cell skin cancers and in sampling abnormal moles when the risk of melanoma is very low. A shave biopsy is not generally recommended if a melanoma is suspected because the shave biopsy sample may not be thick enough to measure how deeply the melanoma has invaded the skin.

2. Punch Biopsy

A punch biopsy removes a deeper sample of skin but is more limited in the diameter of the sample that can be taken. For this skin biopsy procedure, the doctor uses a tool that looks like a tiny round cookie cutter. Once the skin is numbed with a local anesthetic, the doctor rotates the punch biopsy tool on the surface of the skin until it cuts through all the layers of the skin, including the dermis, epidermis, and the upper parts of the subcutis.

3. Incisional and Excisional Biopsies

If the doctor has to examine a skin tumor that may have grown into deeper layers of the skin, he or she will use an incisional or excisional biopsy technique. Incisional biopsy involves removing only a portion of the tumor. Removal of the entire tumor is called an excisional biopsy, and is done when melanoma is suspected.

In this case, a surgical knife is used to cut through the full thickness of skin. A wedge or ellipse of skin is removed for further examination, and the edges of the wound are then sutured together.

Both of these types of biopsies can be done using local anesthesia.

Examining the Skin Biopsy Samples

To make a diagnosis, all skin biopsy samples are examined under a microscope. The skin sample is sent to a pathologist, a doctor who has been specially trained in the microscopic examination and diagnosis of tissue samples. Often, skin biopsy samples are sent specifically to a dermatopathologist or a doctor who has special training in making diagnoses from skin samples.

Other Types of Skin Cancer Biopsy: Lymph Node Biopsy

When it comes to diagnosing skin cancer, performing a skin biopsy is the standard practice. But when your doctor is suspicious of certain types of skin cancer or discovers another source of concern, he or she may choose to perform another type of biopsy to provide more information about the type of cancer and whether it has spread.

During your visit, your doctor may also do a brief physical examination of your lymph nodes.  If he or she finds that they are abnormally large and/or firm, a lymph node biopsy may be performed to determine whether cancer has spread from the skin to the lymph nodes. In addition, special tests can be done on the biopsy sample that can tell whether it is a melanoma or some other kind of cancer.

Fine Needle Aspiration

A fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy uses a syringe with a thin needle to remove small tissue fragments from a tumor. The needle is smaller than the needle used for a blood test. Since local anesthetic is sometimes used to numb the area, this test rarely causes much discomfort and generally does not leave a scar. An FNA biopsy is not used to diagnose a suspicious skin tumor, but it may be used to biopsy large lymph nodes near a skin cancer to determine if the cancer has spread.

Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping and Biopsy

Sentinel lymph node mapping has become a common procedure to help determine if melanoma has spread to the lymph nodes. This procedure can find the lymph nodes that drain lymph fluid from the area of the skin where the melanoma started. If the melanoma has spread, these lymph nodes are usually the first place it will go, which is why these lymph nodes are called sentinel nodes (they stand sentinel, or watch, over the tumor, so to speak).

To map the sentinel lymph node (or nodes), the doctor injects a small amount of radioactive material and dye into the area of the melanoma. By checking various lymph node areas with a radioactivity detector (which works like a Geiger counter), the doctor can see what group of lymph nodes the melanoma is most likely to travel to. The surgeon makes a small incision in the identified lymph node area. The lymph nodes are then checked to find which one(s) turned blue or became radioactive.

When the sentinel node has been found, it is removed and looked at under a microscope. If the sentinel node does not contain melanoma cells, no further lymph node surgery is needed because it is unlikely the melanoma would have spread beyond this point. If melanoma cells are found in the sentinel node, however, the remaining lymph nodes in this area are removed and examined. This second procedure is known as a lymph node dissection. If a lymph node near a melanoma is abnormally large, the sentinel node procedure may not be needed. The enlarged node is then biopsied.


"How Is Squamous and Basal Cell Skin Cancer Diagnosed?" American Cancer Society. June 2008. 15 October 2008.

"How Is Melanoma Diagnosed?" American Cancer Society. June 2008. 15 October 2008.

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