All About Digestive System Enzymes

Small intestine and stomach, illustration
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One of the most frequent health complaints, whether someone has hepatitis or not, is poor digestive system health. A compromised digestive system is often instigated by the decline of enzymes, which, when someone is with an undesirable condition, would decrease the capacity to absorb nutrients that are supposed to be beneficial components of the whole body. This all then leads to poor nutritional status, which eventually might aggravate diseases such as hepatitis.

Hence, it’s very important for hepatitis patients to consider keeping a healthy digestive system, as well as understanding the perks of upright digestive health.

Since one of the most disreputable causes of digestive system failure is the reversal of enzymatic efficiency, it is also necessary to know the benefit of having good enzyme condition in our digestive system. A healthy GI tract uses enzymes to rupture down the ingested foods and yield nutrients that are easily absorbed through the bloodstream. The digestive system, which the liver is a part of, has expedient bacteria essential for proper bowel movement, absorption and vitamin ​manufacture in the organs.

Hepatitis, Anatomy, and Physiology: The World of Enzymes

Pepsin is one of the key digestive enzymes needed for proper digestion. The pepsin helps breakdown the protein and convert it into peptides in the stomach. Trypsin, on the other hand, is an enzyme secreted by the pancreas into the duodenum which converts the peptides into amino acids.

The exploits of the trypsin triggers the action of the chymotrypsin, which also breaks down the proteins. Another enzyme group secreted by the pancreas is contingent of proteases - enzymes that alter the proteins present in the food into amino acids. The saliva produced by the salivary glands also produces an enzyme called amylase, which is also present in the pancreas; it transfigures the carbohydrates into simple sugars as soon as the grub has been lubricated by the saliva in the mouth.​ Lipase is another enzyme which is secreted both by the saliva and the pancreas.

Lipase aids in breaking down the lipids or fats into functioning components. Moreover, the lactose or the milk sugar is fragmented down by the lactase – an enzyme secreted from the bulwarks of the small intestine.

Cellulase, which is produced by the good bacteria living in the gut or the alimentary canal helps in the digestion of the cellulose and other nutrients derived mostly from plant-based foods. Enzymes and other digestive juices stand crucial to the conversion of food molecules into absorbable nutrients. “Good” bacteria, also known as GI flora or probiotics dwelling in the intestine, are friendly microorganisms which intensify the ability of the intestine to suppress the pathogenic or bad bacteria and stimulate the immune system. Probiotics are also extant in a few food items. Some of those are fermented milk products such as yogurt, cheese and buttermilk, fermented vegetables, soy sauce, and miso which are all fermented soy merchandise.  Even naturally fermented snifters have probiotics present.

Nevertheless, there’s no way of eliminating all the bad bacteria in the body and just leave all the good bacteria in it. However, there are techniques to convalesce the health of the GI tract in order to ease the discomforts felt by the hepatitis patient, and to increase the immunity of the body. The probiotics act as balancing bacteria to overcome the negative upshots of the inevitable bad bacteria which might have been accumulated from unhealthy foods. In essence, probiotics neutralize the toxins present in the digestive system and keep the GI tract from free radicals known to freeze the efficiency of the digestive system.

Hepatitis and Anatomy: A Gaze into the Liver

The liver is widely appreciated as the largest inner organ of the body. The skin is the largest organ, but that’s external. The liver has many different roles and is a vital slice of the body. It also plays a capital role in the metabolism and digestion process. The liver hoards glycogen – a multi-branched long chain of glucose that functions as the second primary source of energy packing. The liver also transports the nutrients throughout the body. It renders a bitter, yellowish to brownish or greenish to yellowish fluid called bile. The bile is being secreted to the small intestine, particularly to the duodenum, which aids the digestion and absorption of lipids, including fats.

The bile is deposited in the gallbladder, which is a pear-shaped organ underlying the posterior of the liver, after being exuded by the liver, and duly transported to the small intestine. The stimulation of bile transporting from gallbladder to the small intestine is elicited when there’s an arrival of fatty foods in the digestive scheme. Furthermore, the excess bile is being recycled by the gallbladder to be able to reuse for the digestion of other ensuing food. The pancreas, on the other hand, is liable for the production of pancreatic fluid comprising different enzymes craved for digestion: trypsin for breaking down of proteins, amylase for starches, and lipase for downing the fats. These enzymes pass through and help the small intestine in further metabolizing the food as it goes to the large intestine.

References:

Kararli TT. Comparison of the gastrointestinal anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of humans and commonly used laboratory animals. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 1995 Jul;16(5):351-80.

Ménard D. Functional development of the human gastrointestinal tract: hormone- and growth factor-mediated regulatory mechanisms. Can J Gastroenterol. 2004 Jan;18(1):39-44.

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