Eye Cancer Symptoms

The Signs and Symptoms of Eye Cancer

Close up of woman's eyes
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Eye cancer symptoms range from blurred vision to pain. Eye cancer is a general term used to describe many types of cancer that can develop in the eye. In adults, when people speak of eye cancer, they are usually referencing ocular melanoma, the most common type of eye cancer that affects adults. However, eye cancer can occur in children in the form of the disease called retinoblastoma.

Symptoms of Eye Cancer

Symptoms of eye cancer vary based on the type of cancer.

 Symptoms of adult eye cancer be very different from cancer that affects the eyes of children. In adults, symptoms can include:

  • blurred vision in one eye
  • floaters (small "floating" spots in vision field)
  • change in iris color or dark spot on the iris
  • red and/or painful eye
  • bulging eye
  • loss of peripheral vision

In the early stages of most eye cancers that affect adults, there usually are no symptoms a person would notice on his own. Early signs are often discovered by an optometrist during a routine eye exam.

Eye Melanoma in Adults

Eye melanoma most commonly develops in the cells of the uvea, the vascular layer of your eye sandwiched between the retina, the thin layer of tissue that lines the back inner wall of your eyeball, and the white of your eye (sclera).

Eye melanoma can occur in the front part of the uvea (iris and ciliary body) or in the back part of the uvea (choroid layer).

Eye melanoma can also occur on the outermost layer on the front of the eye (conjunctiva), in the socket that surrounds the eyeball and on the eyelid, though these types of eye melanoma are very rare.

Symptoms of Eye Cancer in Children

The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, a disease that affects 300 children in the U.S. each year. It is usually diagnosed in children 2 and under, but can strike in other ages -- just less commonly.

Symptoms of retinoblastoma include: 

  • a white pupil (leukocoria)
  • misaligned eyes, or "cross eyes" (strabismus)
  • eye pain due to the development of glaucoma (this is less common)
  • different colored pupil in each eye

Many parents find a white spot or a bright white pupil in photographs of their children. One eye may react normally to the flash, creating a "red eye," while the other might show a bright white pupil. Other variations, including a "cat's eye" appearance, may also be seen.

Do not purposely shine a flashlight or other source of light directly into your child's eye to further investigate any eye cancer symptoms. The lights that doctors use are specifically engineered to safely examine the eye -- flashlights are not.

What to Do If You Have the Symptoms of Eye Cancer

Report any changes to your physician, who may refer you to a specialized eye doctor called an ophthalmologist. Adult eye cancers are fairly simple to diagnose under a trained physician.

If you suspect your child may have the symptoms of retinoblastoma, please see your pediatrician as soon as possible.

Early detection is key with retinoblastoma as it can be an aggressive type or childhood cancer.

Mayo Clinic. Eye Melanoma. http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/eye-melanoma/basics/causes/con-20027875

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