Fitz Hugh Curtis Syndrome: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

How Pelvic Infections Can Lead to Fitz Hugh Curtis Syndrome

Pelvic Infection. Credit: www.extremenaturalhealthnews.com / Google Images

Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is a condition in which bacteria, usually from a pelvic infection, spread through the abdomen and cause inflammation of the membrane lining of the stomach and of the tissue surrounding the liver. The diaphragm (the muscle that separates the stomach from the chest) may also be affected.

Also known Gonococcal Perihepatitis or Perihepatitis Syndrome, Fitz-Hugh-Curtis Syndrome is a rare disorder that occurs in 15-30% of women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).

On rare occasions, the disorder may also occur in women without PID and in men.

Symptoms of Fitz Hugh Curtis Syndrome

In Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome, the inflammation of the liver tissue leads to the formation of abnormal tissue connections (adhesions) between the outside of the liver and the inside of the abdomen. In some individuals, these adhesions cause no symptoms. Others may have some or all of the following symptoms associated with Fitz-Hugh-Curtis:

  • Sudden onset of severe pain in the upper right part of the abdomen, over the gallbladder
  • Pain that may have moved to the right shoulder and inside of right arm
  • Increasing pain with coughing, sneezing, or movement
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Chills and fever
  • Night sweats
  • Headaches
  • Hiccupping

Common Causes and Diagnosis

In general, a physician cannot see or feel the presence of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome, so upper abdominal pain may be the only way to suggest the direction of diagnosis.

The presence of a pelvic infection would also provide a clue to the diagnosis, as the disorder is most commonly a complication of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which is an infection of the upper genital tract in women. The Infection is most often caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis.

Without the presence of PID, diagnosis may be difficult, since many conditions can cause abdominal pain. In women, cervical cultures for chlamydia and gonorrhea will be done, since these infections are the most common causes of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome. If infection is present, the white blood cell count (WBC) in the blood will be high, as will the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR).

The physician will examine the individual for common conditions which have symptoms similar to Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome, such as gallstones, liver inflammation (hepatitis), kidney stones or infection, and stomach ulcer. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scan can help rule out these disorders. A chest x-ray can rule out pneumonia as a cause of pain with coughing or sneezing.

Laparoscopy to Confirm Diagnosis

The best way to confirm a diagnosis of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is by having your doctor take a look inside the body (to look at the liver). This is done by inserting a camera inside the abdomen, called laparoscopy.

The physician can see the adhesions on the outside of the liver, which have a typical stringy look (called "violin-string" adhesions).

Treatment of Fitz Hugh Curtis Syndrome

Treatment for the individual with Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome consists of antibiotics for the infection and pain medicine. Once the infection is cleared up, the symptoms resolve. Since chlamydia and gonorrhea are spread through sexual contact, the individual must restrict her/his sexual activity until the infection is gone, and the individual's sexual partner(s) must also be treated.

Sources:

National Organization for Rare Disorders. Fitz Hugh Curtis Syndrome.

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