Glossary of Sports Medicine Terminology - A

Sports medicine terms
Sports medicine terms.

Glossary of Sports Medicine Terminology - A

abdomen: the part of the body that contains the stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, appendix, gallbladder, and bladder.

acute: sudden, brief, and severe. usually referred to in connection with an illness. opposite of chronic.

ac joint: acromioclavicular joint; joint of the shoulder where acromion process of the scapula and the distal end of the clavicle meet; most shoulder separations occur at this point.

abduct: movement of any extremity away from the midline of the body. this action is achieved by an abductor muscle

abrasion: any injury which rubs off the surface of the skin.

abscess: an infection which produces pus; can be the result of a blister, callus, penetrating wound or laceration.

achilles tendon : one of the longest tendons in the body, it attaches the calf muscles to the heel bone.

adduct: movement of an extremity toward the midline of the body. this action is achieved by an adductor muscle.

adhesion: abnormal adherence of collagen fibers to surrounding structures during immobilization following trauma or as a complication of surgery which restricts normal elasticity of the structures involved.

aerobic: exercise in which energy needed is supplied by oxygen inspired and is required for sustained periods of vigorous exercise with a continually high pulse rate.

anabolic steroids: steroids that promote tissue growth by creating protein in an attempt to enhance muscle growth.

the main anabolic steroid is testosterone (male sex hormone).

anaerobic: exercise without the use of oxygen as an energy source; short bursts of vigorous exercise.

anaphylaxis : severe allergic response to a substance. symptoms include wheezing, itching, nasal congestion, hives, immediate intense burning of hands and feet, collapse with a severe drop in blood pressure, loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest.

anaphylactic shock: shock that is caused by an allergic reaction.

anatomy: the study of the structure and parts of the body.

androgen: a hormone such as testosterone responsible for the development of male characteristics.

anterior: in front of; the front surface of.

anterior compartment syndrome: a condition in which swelling within the anterior compartment of the lower leg jeopardizes the viability of muscles, nerves, and arteries that serve the foot. in severe cases, emergency surgery is necessary to relieve the swelling and pressure.

anterior cruciate ligament (ACL): a primary stabilizing ligament within the center of the knee joint that prevents hyperextension and excessive rotation of the joint. a complete tear of the ACL necessitating reconstruction could require up to 12 months of rehabilitation.

anterior talofibular ligament: a ligament of the ankle that connects the fibula (lateral ankle bone) to the talus. this ligament is often times subject to sprain.

anti-inflammatory: any agent which prevents inflammation, such as aspirin or ibuprofen.

arteriogram: a film demonstrating arteries after the injection of a dye.

arthrogram: x-ray technique for joints using air and/or dye injected into the affected area; useful in diagnosing meniscus tears of the knee and rotator cuff tears of the shoulder.

arthroscope: an instrument used to visualize the interior of a joint cavity.

arthroscopy: a surgical examination of the internal structures of a joint by means of viewing through an arthroscope. an arthroscopic procedure can be used to remove or repair damaged tissue or as a diagnostic procedure in order to inspect the extent of any damage or confirm a diagnosis.

aspiration: the withdrawal of fluid from a body cavity by means of a suction or siphonage apparatus, such as a syringe.

asymptomatic: without symptoms.

a.t.c.: athletic trainer certified; one who has certification from the national athletic trainers' association (n.a.t.a.).

atrophy: to shrivel or shrink from disuse, as in muscular atropy .

avascular necrosis: death of a part due to lack of circulation.

avascularity: when controlling bleeding.

avulsion: the tearing away, forcibly, of a part or structure.

axilla: the armpit.

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