Glossary of Sports Medicine Terminology- S

Sports Terms
Sports Terms.

Glossary of Sports Medicine Terminology - S

SC Joint: Sternoclavicular joint. This joint is the point of articulation between the collarbone and the sternum.

Sacroiliac: The joint at the junction of the sacrum with the hip bone.

Sacrum: This is a group of five fused vertebrae located just below the lumbar vertebrae of the low back that makes up the base of the spinal column.

Scapula: This are also called the shoulder blade.

 It is a bone in the upper back that connects the humerus (upper arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone)

Sciatica: Generally referred to as an Irritation of the sciatic nerve which results in pain, numbness or tingling that runs down the inside of the leg from the buttock to the foot.

Sciatic Nerve: Major nerve that carries impulses for muscular action and sensations between the low back and thigh and lower leg; The sciatic nerve is the longest nerve in the body.

Shin Splint: A catch-all term that and related syndrome that describes pain in the shin (the front of the lower leg) that is not caused by a fracture or tumor and cannot be defined otherwise. It is generally caused by overuse of the muscle of the lower leg or by repetitive impact on hard pavement. It's a fairly common running injury.

Soft Corn: A corn, softened by moisture, that is found beneath the toes rather than on the upper surface of the toe.

Sorbothane: An energy absorbing polyurethane utilized in some foot orthotics to absorb shock forces of the foot.

Spasm Theory: This theory originally claimed that most muscle spasms caused by exercise-induced muscle soreness were the result of a reduced muscle blood flow, which results in pain, and spasm.

However, more recent research and newer theories point to other theories of muscle spasms may be the result of  muscle fiber fatigue, nerve impulse problems, dehydration or other chemical processes.

Spinous Process: A small projection of bone that points off the posterior (back) portion of each vertebra. This point  functions as an attachment site for muscles or ligaments of the spine.

Spleen: Large, solid organ responsible for the normal production and destruction of blood cells.

Spondylitis: Inflammation of one or more vertebrae.

Spondylolisthesis: Forward displacement of one vertebra over another below it due to a developmental defect in the vertebrae.

Spondylosis: Abnormal vertebral fixation or immobility.

Sports Psychology: A branch of medicine and science that deals with the mental and emotional aspects of physical performance.

Sprain: Injury resulting from the stetch or twist of the joint and causes various degrees of stretch of tear of a ligament or other soft tissue at the joint.

Sternum: The breast bone.

Steroids: Any one of a large number of hormone-like substances. See anabolic steroids and cortical steroids.

Strain: Injury resulting from a pull or torsion to the muscle or tendon that causes various degrees of stretch or tear to the muscle or tendon tissue.

Stress Fracture: A hair-line type of break in a bone caused by overuse.

Stress X-Ray: A continual x-ray taken when a portion of the body is stressed to its maximum in order to determine joint stability. This is a test utilized in some ankle injuries.

Stretching: Any therapeutic maneuver designed to elongate shortened soft tissue structures and thereby increase flexibility.

Subluxation: Partial dislocation of a joint. The term usually implies that the joint can return to its normal position without formal reduction.

Superior: In anatomy, the upper of two parts; toward the top or above.

Supination: Movement of the forearm into a palm-up position.

Synovial Fluid: Lubricating fluid for joints and tendons, produced in synovium, or the inner lining of a joint.

Synovitis: Inflammation of the synovial lining of a joint.

Systole: The portion of the heart cycle during which the heart muscle is contracting.

Systolic Blood Pressure: The highest blood pressure produced by the contraction of the heart. Recorded as the first number in your blood pressure measurement.

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