HIV Tests and Reports Gallery

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How to Read a HIV Genetic Resistance Test Report

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Image © James Myhre

HIV Genetic Resistance Test Report (Sample)
Source article: How Does an HIV Genetic Resistance Test Work?

  1. The genetic resistance assay first identifies mutations associated with current or evolving drug resistance by class of antiretroviral drug (e.g., nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors).
  2. Levels of resistance are categorized in "fold" values, whereby a 4.0-fold value indicates that four times more drug is required to suppress a person's virus versus that of a control, "wild-type" virus (i.e., HIV in its natural, un-mutated state).
  3. The "fold" values are then compared to upper and lower cut-off values for each drug, after which an interpretation of resistance levels is made.

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How to Read a Hematology Report (Sample)

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Sample Hematology Report. Image © James Myhre

Hematology Report (Sample)
Source article: Deciphering Your Routine Blood Tests

  1. When reading a lab report, results are generally expressed in a numeric value. These values are then compared to the "normal" range outlined on the report, which is indicated with a high and a low value. The normal range is based on the values one would expect to find within the average general population.
  2. Attention is given to values that fall outside of the normal range, as this may suggest a potential concern. Abnormal values are sometimes highlighted in bold, or indicated with "H" for high and "L" for low.

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HIV Treatment Cascade Model

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Image © James Myhre

Source article: What Is the "HIV Treatment Cascade?"

The HIV Treatment Cascade is a representational model used by Federal, state and local agencies to better identify gaps in care delivery to people living with HIV. Also known as the HIV/AIDS Care Continuum, the model offers a compelling illustration as to  the proportion of Americans who are engaged at each step of HIV care in descending order:

  1. The estimated number of individuals infected with HIV;
  2. The proportion that has been diagnosed;
  3. The proportion that has linked to care;
  4. The proportion that is retained in care;
  5. The proportion that requires antiretroviral therapy;
  6. The proportion that actually received therapy, and;
  7. The proportion able to maintain undetectable viral loads (considered the measure of treatment success).

Source:

Gardner, E.; McLees, M.; Steiner, J.; et al. "The Spectrum of Engagement in HIV Care and its Relevance to Test-and-Treat Strategies for Prevention of HIV Infection." Clinical Infectious Diseases. March 2011; 52(6):793-800.

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