What Is the HIV Viral Load Important?

Suppression restores immune function, reduces HIV risk

Blood Test used under Creative Commons license https://www.flickr.com/photos/lori_greig/4185759295
Photograph © Lori Greig

The HIV viral load is a measurement of the amount of HIV circulating in your blood if you are HIV-positive. The viral load is used to determine how effectively your antiretroviral drugs are working and can even tell doctors when your treatment is failing or you are not taking your drugs as prescribed.

Goal of HIV Therapy

The goal of HIV therapy is to prevent HIV from replicating in order to bring the viral population down to undetectable level.

Undetectable does not mean that there is no virus or that the virus has suddenly been cleared from your body. It simply means that no virus can be detected using currently available testing technologies. Once ART is stopped, the virus will invariably return and start replicating again.

It is important to note that the HIV viral load can vary when testing blood and other body fluids. For example, an undetectable viral load in blood doesn't necessarily mean that you are undetectable in semen. This phenomenon, known as viral shedding, can increase the risk of transmission from persons who might otherwise be considered virus-free.

People with uncontrolled viral loads risk severe damage to their immune systems, the injury of which leaves the body exposed to an ever-increasing array of opportunistic infections.

How Viral Load Testing Is Performed

Typically, your doctor will draw once every three to six months to measure your viral load.

Newer, ultra-sensitive quantitative viral load tests can detect viral activity as low as five copies/mL to well over 1,000,000 copies/mL.

By contrast, qualitative HIV viral load tests are simply used to confirm the presence of HIV and are commonly used to test infants and newborns born to HIV-positive mothers.

Interpreting Viral Load Results

The aim of viral load is simple: the fewer copies of HIV in your blood the better.

When starting treatment, viral load tests provide the baseline measures by which later tests are compared. Every tenfold drop in viral load is considered a one-log drop. For example, if the viral load drops from 50,000 copies/mL to 500 copies/mL, the patient is said to have a two-log drop in viral load.

Generally speaking, with current generation HIV drugs, one can expect to have an undetectable viral load in anywhere from two to nine months. While the speed by which suppression is achieved can vary, it tends to be slower in persons who have delayed treatment and sustained severe immune damage.

We measure this by a person's CD4 count which quantifies how many defensive CD4 T-cells are remaining in the blood. A person with a normal immune function can have anywhere from 500 to 1,500 cells/mL, while persons with a compromised immune system will have less than 200 cell/mL.

Moreover, if a person has developed or acquired resistance to any of the prescribed drugs, the likelihood of viral suppression may also be severely compromised. In such case, treatment will need to be changed after genetic testing reveals which drug or drugs the patient is resistant to.

The Benefits of an Undetectable Viral Load

The aim of HIV therapy is to sustain undetectable viral loads for many years which not only preserves future treatment options but reduces the risk of serious illness by 53 percent.

Additionally, sustaining an undetectable viral significantly reduces your chance of passing the virus to others, a prevention strategy known as HIV treatment as prevention (TasP). Studies have strongly supported the use of TasP in mixed-status (serodiscordant) couples, suggesting that it could reduce risk by as much as 96 percent.

Sources:

Cohen, M.; Chen, Y.; McCauley, M. et al. "Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy." New England Journal of Medicine. August 11, 2011; 365(6):493-505.

National Institutes of Health. "Starting antiretroviral therapy early improves outcomes for HIV-infected individuals." Bethesda, Maryland; issued May 27, 2015.

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