Hospital Acquired Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci

Risks and Prevention of VRE Infection

An illustration of Enterococcus bacteria.
An illustration of Enterococcus bacteria. PASIEKA/Getty Images

Joining the cohort of potentially serious infections that are resistant to standard treatments and notoriously difficult to eradicate, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, or VRE, is a relatively new infection being found in hospitals.

Antibiotic Resistance and Superbug Survival

Enterococci (the plural form of enterococcus) is a type of bacteria found naturally in the body's intestinal tract and in the genital tracts of women.

As long as it stays in the intestinal or female genital tract, it doesn't usually cause a problem and does not need to be treated. This is known as a "colonization" rather than an "infection." However, enterococci can cause dangerous infections in other parts of the body like the urinary tract, the bloodstream, a wound or a catheter insertion site if it travels to them.

Vancomycin is an antibiotic that has been around for more than 50 years. It was originally developed for infections that are resistant to penicillin, including MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and the oral form is used to treat another tough infection, C. Diff. A patient with an infection will usually be treated first with an antibiotic that is easier on the system than vancomycin is. If that antibiotic doesn't work to kill the infection, then vancomycin may be prescribed.

But, in recent years, some of those more aggressive infection-causing bacteria -- like MRSA -- have become resistant to vancomycin, too.

Those bacteria that used to succumb to vancomycin have evolved to be able to tolerate it. Included is one form of enterococci infection, now widely known as VRE. Patients whose immune systems are compromised can die from a VRE infection.

Who Is at Risk?

The elderly and other immunocompromised patients are at greater risk of developing and dying from a VRE infection.

In addition, the following patients are at increased risk of becoming infected with VRE:

  • Those previously treated for long periods of time with vancomycin or other antibiotics
  • Hospitalized patients, particularly those receiving long courses of antibiotics
  • Immunocompromised patients in such as those in intensive care units, cancer or transplant units
  • Surgical patients who have undergone procedures involving the abdomen or chest.
  • People with medical devices such as urinary catheters or central intravenous (IV) catheters
  • People who are colonized with VRE

Preventing VRE and Other Hospital-Acquired Infections

Prevention of VRE, like all other hospital acquired infections, is key. Whether you are a patient, a caregiver or a patient advocate, you'll want to follow the steps to prevent a hospital acquired infection.

Learn about additional infections hospital patients must be be concerned about:

Sources:

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci from the CDC.

Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) from the New York State Department of Health.

Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) from Johns Hopkins Medicine.

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