How Does Dementia Affect Visuospatial Abilities and Skills?

Visuospatial Changes in Dementia
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Dementia affects more than just the ability to remember things. It also can impact visuospatial abilities and skills.

What Are Visuospatial Abilities?

Also referred to as "visual-spatial" and "visuo-spatial," visuospatial abilities consists of the ability to understand what we see around us and interpret spatial relationships. In other words, this includes both the images we see (visual), as well as our perception of the size and location of our surroundings (spatial).

How Does Dementia Affect Visuospatial Abilities?

  • Depth Perception

Dementia can affect depth perception, making it more difficult to navigate tasks such as going down stairs and thus increasing the risk for falls. Activities of daily living such as getting into a bathtub, getting dressed or feeding oneself can also become more challenging.

Persons with dementia can also become easily lost and wander, even in very familiar environments. They might not recognize the path home that they've taken every day for many years, or be able to locate the bathroom in the middle of the night.

  • Recognizing Faces and Locating Objects

Visuospatial changes may also contribute, along with the cognitive symptoms of dementia, to the inability to recognize faces or find objects that are in plain sight.

  • Reading

The ability to read may also decline, in part due to visuospatial changes, as well as a decline in ability to remember how to read or comprehend the meaning of the words.

Research on Visuospatial Ability and Lewy Body Dementia

Visuospatial ability is affected in multiple types of dementia, including in the very early stages of Alzheimer's disease. Interestingly, several research studies have concluded that visuospatial changes are especially prevalent in Lewy body dementia, which includes dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia.

One study noted that poor performance on visuospatial tests was connected with a faster rate of decline in persons with Lewy body dementia.

In addition, research demonstrated that visuospatial deficits have been correlated with an increase in hallucinations in Lewy body dementia. Hallucinations are one of the hallmarks of Lewy body dementia, making this connection with visuospatial ability intriguing and identifying it as an area for further research.

Sources:

Alzheimer's Association.10 Early Signs and Symptoms of Alzheimer's. Accessed January 29, 2015. http://www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_10_signs_of_alzheimers.asp

Alzheimer's Association. Criteria for AD Dementia. 2010. www.alz.org/research/diagnostic_criteria/dementia_recommendations.pdf

Alzheimer's Association. Research grants 2005. Virtual Reality Assessment of Visuospatial Disorientation in Alzheimer's. http://www.alz.org/research/alzheimers_grants/for_researchers/overview-2005.asp?grants=2005pelak

American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2012 Sep;20(9):773-81. Early visuospatial deficits predict the occurrence of visual hallucinations in autopsy-confirmed dementia with Lewy bodies. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21997600

Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology. 2014 Jan-Mar; 17(1): 12–18. Visuo-cognitive skill deficits in Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body disease: A comparative analysis. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3992750/

Neuropsychology. Nov 2008; 22(6): 729–737.Visuospatial Deficits Predict Rate of Cognitive Decline in Autopsy-Verified Dementia with Lewy Bodies.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2587484/

PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):  Visuospatial Function in Early Alzheimer’s Disease—The Use of the Visual Object and Space Perception (VOSP) Battery. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3713013/

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