Psychology How Much Do You Know About Behaviorism? Can you answer these questions about classical and operant conditioning? By Kendra Cherry Updated February 09, 2016 Share Pin Email Psychology Behavioral Theories Operant Conditioning Basics Personality Development Cognitive Psychology Developmental Psychology Psychosocial Theories History Personality Psychology Leadership Psychotherapy Neuroscience and Biological Psychology Branches Social Psychology For Students Glossary View All 1. The period of time when the conditioned stimulus first comes to evoke the conditioned response is called: Adaptation Discrimination Acquisition Habituation Correct Wrong Acquisition occurs following repeated pairings of the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus. Eventually, the conditioned stimulus alone will come to evoke the conditioned response. At this point, it can be said that the response has been acquired. 2. Little Albert was conditioned to fear a white rat, but he was also afraid of other furry, white objects. This is called: Phobic behavior Stimulus discrimination Superstitious behavior Stimulus generalization Correct Wrong Stimulus generalization refers to the tendency of the objects similar to the conditioned stimulus to also evoke a similar response. For example, people usually aren't afraid of just a single type of spider. The fear generalizes to all kinds of spiders and even other organisms that share similar characteristics. 3. Who outlined the behaviorist school of thought in his 1913 paper "Psychology As the Behaviorist Views It?" B.F. Skinner John B. Watson Ivan Pavlov Edward Thorndike Correct Wrong John B. Watson was one of the early advocates for behaviorism. His seminal paper "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It" was originally delivered as a lecture at Columbia University and later published the Psychological Review. The paper outlined the behaviorist view that psychology should be the science of observable behaviors. 4. What is a reinforcer? Any event that strengthens or increases a response Something the individual finds pleasant Anything that decreases a response An incentive Correct Wrong In operant conditioning, reinforcement involves anything that increases the likelihood that a response will occur again in the future. In a classroom, for example, a teacher might reinforce desirable behaviors by offering treats, praise or special privileges. 5. The sudden reappearance of a response after a period of extinction is known as: Stimulus generalization Extinction Stimulus discrimination Spontaneous recovery Correct Wrong When a conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus are no longer paired, extinction can occur. Essentially, the conditioned response will cease. Following a period of time, the response may suddenly reappear when the conditioned stimulus is presented, a phenomenon known as spontaneous recovery. 6. Which of the following is true of learning? Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior Learning only occurs through conditioning Learning is a passive process All of the above Correct Wrong In psychology, learning is usually defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior that is the direct result of experience. 7. Innate reinforcers such as food and water that diminish a biological need are known as: Primary reinforcers Secondary reinforcers Correct Wrong Primary reinforcers are naturally-occurring and require no learning. They are usually biological and include things such as food, water, sleep and sex. Secondary reinforcers, on the other hand, only become reinforcing by being associated with a primary reinforcer. Money is a good example of a secondary reinforcer. 8. A worker is rewarded for the first response after a specified period of time. What reinforcement schedule is this? Fixed Interval Schedule Variable Ratio Schedule Fixed Ratio Schedule Variable Interval Schedule Correct Wrong Fixed-interval schedules involve rewarding only the first response after a certain amount of time has passed. This schedule tends to lead to a lot of responding right before the interval ends, followed by slower responding once the reinforcer has been delivered. 9. In classical conditioning, the natural and unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is known as the: Unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned response Conditioned stimulus Conditioned response Correct Wrong The unconditioned response occurs naturally and is entirely unlearned. Salivating at the smell of food is an example of an unconditioned response. 10. Which of B.F. Skinner's schedules of reinforcement is the most difficult to extinguish? Fixed interval Fixed ratio Variable ratio Variable interval Correct Wrong In variable-ratio schedules, reinforcement is delivered following an unpredictable number of responses. Sometimes the subject might respond just once, while other times they might have to respond many times before reinforcement is given. Slot machines and other forms of gambling are examples of variable-ratio schedules. Such schedules typically lead to high, steady rates of response. 11. What is a punishment? An unpleasant event or stimulus Any undesired event or stimulus that weakens or decreases a behavior A disagreeable consequence Something the individual dislikes Correct Wrong While reinforcement is used to increase the likelihood that responses will reoccur, punishment involves anything that decreases the chances that a behavior with occur again in the future. If lab rats receive an electrical shock after performing an action, for example, they will be less likely to engage in that action again. The electrical shock is a type of punishment. 12. What learning process did B.F. Skinner describe? Observational learning Modeling Operant conditioning Classical conditioning Correct Wrong B.F. Skinner's operant conditioning was influenced by Edward Thorndike's law of effect, which suggested that actions followed by desirable outcomes were more likely to be repeated. In operant conditioning, reinforcement increases behaviors while punishment decreases them. 13. In Pavlov's classic experiment with dogs, the food was the: Unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned response Conditioned stimulus Conditioned response Correct Wrong The unconditioned stimulus naturally and automatically triggers a response, such as food resulting in salivation. In Pavlov's famous experiment, dogs automatically salivated whenever food was presented. By pairing the sound of a tone with the food, the animals eventually salivated in response to the tone alone. 14. While Ivan Pavlov is famous for his contributions to psychology, he was actually a: Linguist Physiologist Zoologist Botonist Correct Wrong While Ivan Pavlov is one of the most important thinkers in psychology, he was actually a physiologist. It was during his experiments on the digestive systems of dogs (for which he was later awarded the Noble prize) that he accidently made his famous discovery of the classical conditioning process. 15. Negative reinforcement increases the strength or frequency of a response by _____ an aversive stimulus. Increasing Decreasing Removing Ignoring Correct Wrong Negative reinforcement involves removing an aversive stimulus in order to strengthen a response. When you forget to turn your seatbelt on, your car may make an annoying sound until you buckle up. The irritating sound is an example of a negative reinforcer. How Much Do You Know About Behaviorism? You got: % Correct. You're the Next B.F. Skinner B. F. Skinner. New York Times Co. / Getty Images You're no slouch when it comes to classical and operant conditioning. Not only are you well-versed in the history of behaviorism and many of the major behaviorist thinkers, you also have a solid understanding of the basics of reinforcement, punishment and reinforcement schedules. Keep your knowledge fresh by reviewing some of the key differences between classical and operant conditioning. THIS TOOL DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. It is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional medical consultation, diagnosis or treatment. Share Your Results Share Pin Tweet How Much Do You Know About Behaviorism? You got: % Correct. You're a Novice Behaviorist Yasuhide Fumoto / Taxi Japan / Getty Images You have some knowledge of the basics of behaviorism, but you could probably stand to brush up on your knowledge of some of the finer details. Start by learning more about some of the key differences between classical and operant conditioning. Once you have a solid understanding of some of the basics, move on to learn more about reinforcement, punishment and schedules of reinforcement. THIS TOOL DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. It is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional medical consultation, diagnosis or treatment. Share Your Results Share Pin Tweet How Much Do You Know About Behaviorism? You got: % Correct. You Need to Study a Bit More Hero Images / Getty Images Don't feel bad - many behavioral concepts can be quite challenging, especially for beginners. Fortunately, a little further study can help you master these concepts and ace your psychology exams. Start by learning a little more about the history of behaviorism as well as some of the most influential behavioral thinkers including Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner. Also explore some of the basics of classical conditioning and operant conditioning, as well as some critical differences between the two types of conditioning. THIS TOOL DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. It is intended for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional medical consultation, diagnosis or treatment. Share Your Results Share Pin Tweet Up Next Up Next Article A Study Guide for Your Psychology of Learning Exam Up Next Category An Overview of Behavioral Psychology Up Next Article What's Difference Between the Classical and Operant Conditioning? Up Next Article What Are the 5 Principles of Classical Conditioning?