How To Treat Cat Bites and Scratches

cat biting toe
Probably not a bite that will result in a visit to the ER. C. Chase Taylor / Getty Images

As much as humans interact with felines, it's no wonder that cat bites are common injuries, especially in children. Treating a cat bite should always start with the safety of all involved, including the patient, the rescuer, and if possible, the cat.

The following steps can be taken at home, or wherever the bite occurred. You should always consult with a physician right away to determine if further action is needed.

Steps

  1. Stay Safe. Secure the cat or the patient. Move one away from the other. If the cat's owner is around, instruct him or her to secure the cat. If not, move the patient to a safe location. Cats may bite or scratch if frightened or their kittens are threatened, so leave them alone. Don't start any treatment until there is a reasonable expectation that the cat won't attack again.
  2. If you are not the patient, practice universal precautions and wear personal protective equipment if available.
  3. Control any bleeding by using direct pressure and elevation. Avoid using a tourniquet unless there is severe bleeding that cannot be controlled any other way. That's unlikely unless the cat is a mountain lion. In the event that direct pressure cannot be maintained for an extended amount of time, direct pressure can be achieved using a pressure dressing.
  4. Once the bleeding is controlled, clean the wound with soap and warm water. Clean inside the wound, being sure to rinse away all the soap, or it will cause irritation later. Any regular soap will do. There's no reason to use any sort of anti-bacterial or antiseptic soap.
  1. Cover the wound with a clean, dry dressing. You can put antibiotic ointment on the bite before covering, but that is not absolutely necessary. Cat bites and scratches can lead to infection, however. Watch for these signs of infection:
    • Redness
    • Swelling
    • Heat
    • Oozing pus
  2. Always consult your doctor. The wound may need stitches. Since they are often deep, cat bites and scratches are of particular concern for infection. Again, regardless of how severe you think the bite is, always consult a physician right away.
  1. Wounds on the face or hands should always be evaluated by a doctor because of the likelihood of scarring and potential loss of function.
  2. Any unidentified cat runs the risk of carrying rabies. If the cat cannot be identified and the owner cannot show proof of rabies vaccination, the patient must seek medical attention. Rabies is always fatal to humans if not treated.

Sources: 

Chen Y, Gao Y, Zhou L, Tan Y, Li L. A Comparative Study of Dog- and Cat-Induced Injury on Incidence and Risk Factors among Children. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 Nov 3;13(11). pii: E1079.

Caicedo, Y., Paez, A., Kuzmin, I., Niezgoda, M., Orciari, L., & Yager, P. et al. (2015). Virology, Immunology and Pathology of Human Rabies During Treatment. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal34(5), 520-528. doi:10.1097/inf.0000000000000624

Continue Reading