Learning Styles Based on Jung's Theory of Personality

Jungian Learning Styles

Students learning
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Have you ever felt like you learn best in a particular way? These learning styles impact how well we learn under certain conditions. Some students learn best by hearing information while others learn best by seeing it. Some different theories have emerged to describe how students prefer to learn best.

One learning style theory is based on the work of analytical psychologist Carl Jung, who developed a theory of psychological types designed to categorize people in terms of various personality patterns. Jung’s theory focuses on four basic psychological functions:

  1. Extraversion vs. Introversion
  2. Sensation vs. Intuition
  3. Thinking vs. Feeling
  4. Judging vs. Perceiving

This theory later led to the development of the now-famous Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

In addition to influencing personality assessment, Jung's dimensions can also be used to assess and describe various learning styles. While each dimension represents a unique aspect of a learning style, it is important to remember that your individual learning style may include a combination of these dimensions. For example, your learning style might include elements of extroverted, sensing, feeling, and perceiving learning styles.

Continue reading to learn more about each dimension in order to determine which combination best describes your unique style.

Extraverted Learning Style

Extroverted students
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What Is an Extraverted Learning Style?

The first component of the Jungian learning style dimensions indicates how learners interact with the outside world.


learners enjoy generating energy and ideas from other people. They prefer socializing and working in groups. Learning activities that benefit extraverted learners include teaching others how to solve a problem, collaborative/group work, and problem-based learning. If you enjoy teaching others, participating in a group and learning by experience, you are probably an extraverted learner.

Number of Extraverted Learners

Approximately 60% of learners are extraverted learners.

Characteristics of Extravert Learners

  • Learns best through direct experience
  • Enjoys working with others in groups
  • Often gathers ideas from outside sources
  • Willing to lead, participate and offer opinions
  • Jumps right in without guidance from others

Introverted Learning Style

Smiling student with phone
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What Is an Introverted Learning Style?



learners are still sociable, they prefer to solve problems on their own. Introverted learners enjoy generating energy and ideas from internal sources, such as brainstorming, personal reflection, and theoretical exploration. These learners prefer to think about things before attempting to try a new skill. If you enjoy solitary studying, individual work, and abstract ideas, you are probably an introverted learner.

Number of Introverted Learners

Approximately 40% of learners are introverted learners.

Characteristics of Introvert Learners

  • Prefers to work alone
  • Enjoys quiet, solitary work
  • Often generates ideas from internal sources
  • Prefers to listen, watch and reflect
  • Likes to observe others before attempting a new skill

Sensing Learning Style

Learning by experience
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What Is a Sensing Learning Style?

Sensing learners are focused on aspects of the physical environment. Jung described these individuals as being interested in the external world. They tend to be realistic and practical, preferring to rely on information gained through experience. While people with a sensing learning style enjoy order and routine, they also tend to be very quick to adapt to changing environments and situations.

Number of Sensing Learners

Approximately 65% of learners have a sensing learning style.

Characteristics of Sensate Learners

  • Focuses on the present
  • Practical and reasonable
  • Utilizes experience and common sense to solve problems
  • Keenly observe the surrounding world

Intuitive Learning Style

Intuitive student
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What Is an Intuitive Learning Style?

Intuitive learners tend to focus more on the world of possibility. Unlike sensing learners who are interested in the here and now, intuitive learners enjoy considering ideas, possibilities, and potential outcomes. These learners like abstract thinking, daydreaming, and imagining the future.

Number of Intuitive Learners

Approximately 35% of learners are intuitive learners.

Characteristics of Intuitive Learners

  • Prefers to work in short sessions, rather than finishing a task all at once
  • Enjoys new challenges, experiences and situations
  • More likely to look at the big picture rather than the details
  • Like theories and abstract ideas

Thinking Learning Style

Perceptive student
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What Is a Thinking Learning Style?

Individuals with a thinking learning style tend to focus more on the structure and function of information and objects. Thinking learners utilize rationality and logic when dealing with problems and decisions. These learners often base decisions on personal ideas of right, wrong, fairness, and justice.

Number of Thinking Learners

Approximately 55% of males and 35% of females have a thinking learning style.

Characteristics of Thinking Learners

  • Interested in logic and patterns
  • Dislike basing decisions on emotions
  • Bases decisions on reason and logic

Feeling Learning Style

Smiling and studying
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What Is a Feeling Learning Style?

People with a feeling style manage information based on the initial emotions and feelings it generates. Individuals with this learning style are interested in personal relationships, feelings, and social harmony. If you base decisions on emotions and dislike conflict, you might have a feeling learning style.

Number of Feeling Learners

Approximately 45% of males 65% of females are feeling learners.

Characteristics of Feeling Learners

  • Interested in people and their feelings
  • In tune with their own emotions and those of other people
  • Base decisions on immediate feelings
  • Generates excitement and enthusiasm in group settings

Judging Learning Style

Serious student in class
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What Is a Judging Learning Style?

Judging learners tend to be very decisive. In some cases, these learners may actually make decisions too quickly before learning everything they need to know about a situation. These learners prefer order and structure, which is why they tend to plan out activities and schedules very carefully. If you are highly organized, detail-oriented, and have strong opinions, you might be a judging learner.

Number of Judging Learners

Approximately 45% of people are judging learners.

Characteristics of Judging Learners

  • Do not like ambiguity or mystery
  • Tend to be firm in their decisions
  • Very organized and structured
  • Strong opinions
  • Generally follows the rules

Perceiving Learning Style

Student looking at molecular model
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What Is a Perceiving Learning Style?

Perceiving learners tend to make decisions impulsively in response to new information and changing situations. However, these learners tend to focus more on indulging their curiosity rather than making decisions. Unlike judging learners who tend not to change their minds, perceiving learners prefer to keep their options open. If you tend to start many projects at once (often without finishing any of them), avoid strict schedules, and jump in to projects first without planning, you might be a perceiving learner.

Number of Perceiving Learners

Approximately 55% of people are perceiving learners.

Characteristics of Perceiving Learners

  • Often make impulsive decisions
  • Change decisions based on new information
  • Dislike structure and organization
  • Tends to be very flexible and adaptable
  • Sometimes has trouble making decisions

Final Thoughts

The learning styles based upon Jung's theory of personality represent just one way of thinking about how people learn. While the concept of learning styles remains very popular today, research has found little evidence to support the idea that offering instruction based upon learning preferences leads to improved learning outcomes. Some other theories that attempt to categorize learning styles include the VARK learning style model and the Kolb learning style model.

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