What Is Normal Range of Motion In a Joint?

Generally Accepted Values for Normal Range of Motion (ROM)

The knee joint.
The knee joint.. SCIEPRO/Getty Images

A joint is a location in the body where bones connect. They are constructed for, and responsible for, movement of the body. There are many joints throughout the human body. Joints move in predetermined directions, allowing for movement. There are a few joints that do not support movement, however, such as in the skull. Individual joints have a predetermined range of motion. This range of motion is commonly measured in degrees.

Each individual joint (hip, knee, ankle, foot, joints of the feet, joints of the toe, shoulder, elbow, wrist, and hand and finger joints) all have different ranges of motion. Although there is variability among individuals, there are generally accepted values for a normal range of motion in individual each joint.

What Is Normal Range of Motion Of a Joint?

Although there is variability among various individuals, the following are generally accepted values for a normal range of motion (ROM) in each individual joint as measured in degrees (°).

Common joint movements include flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction.

Hip

  • flexion 0° to 125°
  • extension 115° to 0°
  • hyperextension (straightening beyond normal range) 0° to 15°
  • abduction 0° to 45°
  • adduction 45° to 0°
  • lateral rotation (rotation away from the center of the body) 0° to 45°
  • medial rotation (rotation towards the center of the body) 0° to 45°

Knee

  • flexion 0° to 130°
  • extension 120° to 0°

Ankle

  • plantar flexion (movement downward) 0° to 50°
  • dorsiflexion (movement upward) 0° to 20°

Foot

  • inversion (turned inward) 0° to 35°
  • eversion (turned outward) 0° to 25°

Metatarsophalangeal joints of foot

  • flexion 0° to 30°
  • extension 0° to 80°

Interphalangeal joints of toe

  • flexion 0° to 50°
  • extension 50° to 0°

Shoulder

  • flexion 0° to 180°
  • extension 0° to 50°
  • abduction 0° to 90°
  • adduction 90° to 0°
  • lateral rotation 0° to 90°
  • medial rotation 0° to 90°

Elbow

  • flexion 0° to 160°
  • extension 145° to 0°
  • pronation (rotation inward) 0° to 90°
  • supination (rotation outward) 0° to 90°

Wrist

  • flexion 0° to 90°
  • extension 0° to 70°
  • abduction 0° to 25°
  • adduction 0° to 65°

Metacarpophalangeal (MCP)

  • abduction 0° to 25°
  • adduction 20° to 0°
  • flexion 0° to 90°
  • extension 0° to 30°

Interphalangeal proximal (PIP) joints of fingers

  • flexion 0° to 120°
  • extension 120° to 0°

Interphalangeal distal (DIP) joint of fingers

  • flexion 0° to 80°
  • extension 80° to 0°

Metacarpophalangeal joint of thumb

  • abduction 0° to 50°
  • adduction 40° to 0°
  • flexion 0° to 70°
  • extension 60° to 0°

Interphalangeal joint of thumb

  • flexion 0° to 90°
  • extension 90° to 0°

Also Known As: ROM, joint movement.

Source:

Physical Therapy (PT). Merck Manual Professional. November 2005.

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