5 Principles of Healthy Eating

Perhaps you’ve made a new year’s resolution to start eating more healthfully, or you just feel it is time to change your dietary habits to promote a healthier lifestyle as well as for weight management. But where do you begin?

Start with and keep in mind these five key principles for healthy eating, and you will always be on the right track.

1
Focus on Vegetables and Fruits

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Study after study has shown that the more whole fruits and vegetables you eat, the lower your risk for many chronic diseases, including cancer, obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease—including heart disease and stroke.

Fruits and vegetables constitute low-calorie foods. A report by WHO has stated that there is convincing evidence that eating fruits and vegetables decreases the risk for obesity. Compared to high-calorie foods such as processed foods that are high in sugar and fat, fruits and vegetables are less likely to contribute to obesity or overweight.

And, because they contain higher amounts of dietary fiber and other nutrients, they are associated with a lower risk for diabetes and insulin resistance. For the same reasons, they also make people feel full with fewer calories, thus helping to prevent weight gain.

Additionally, research has shown that eating three to five servings of fruits and vegetables per day will decrease your risk of stroke, and eating more than five servings per day will decrease that risk even more. In an incremental fashion, the more fruits and vegetables you eat, the lower your risk. A very good return on your investment.

2
Avoid Processed Meats

Hot Dog
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The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), a part of the World Health Organization (WHO), has come out definitively with a report on cancer-causing processed meats, stating that such meats definitely can cause colorectal cancer. They have also stated that red meat in general “probably” causes cancers such as colon, pancreatic and prostate cancer.

Given that obesity is a risk factor for a number of different cancers, it is helpful to do all you can to decrease your risk.

Examples of processed meats to avoid: hot dogs, sausage, beef jerky, corned beef, ham, canned meat and canned meat-based preparations and sauces.

3
Cut Back on Added Sugars

New Year's Resolutions
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It has been reported that the average American consumes 22 teaspoons of sugar a day. Given that the American Heart Association recommends that the intake of added sugar not exceed 6 teaspoons daily for women and 9 teaspoons daily for men.

Major sources of added sugar to avoid include sugared beverages, including sodas and energy or sports drinks; grain desserts like pies, cookies, and cakes; fruit drinks (which are seldom 100% fruit juice); candy; and dairy desserts like ice cream.

4
Drink More Water

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The many health benefits of drinking water are often overlooked. But don't underestimate the importance of what may be the healthiest beverage of all.

Water has no calories. Zero. What it does have plenty of: health benefits. Researchers have found that drinking a glass of water 30 minutes before you have a meal can make you feel fuller and thus more likely to eat less, thereby reducing calorie intake.

Staying hydrated throughout the day will make you more alert, help you think more clearly, and make you feel less fatigued.

All of that can lead to making better dietary choices as well. As an added bonus, drinking enough water throughout the day can help in the prevention of recurrent kidney stones.

5
Eat Less Salt

Close-up of a salt shaker
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Obesity causes high blood pressure (also known by its medical term, “hypertension”), so it is helpful to know what you can do to manage your blood pressure—and that includes cutting back on dietary sodium intake.

With the advent of processed foods, average American sodium intake skyrocketed. In fact, it has been estimated that the average sodium intake per person in the United States is 3,478 milligrams per day. This is at least 1,000 milligrams per day more than what many well-respected scientific and professional health organizations, such as the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, recommend for maximum daily intake.

Which foods are the saltiest? The answer might surprise you. While you may think that most of your salt intake comes from your home salt shaker, in reality, most Americans get the majority of their sodium from packaged, highly processed, and restaurant  foods.

Here are some of the worst offenders:

  • Snack foods, such as chips, crackers, and pretzels
  • Canned foods, like canned beans and soups
  • Pickled foods
  • Cheese
  • Processed meats, like ham, bacon, corned beef, hot dogs, sausages and luncheon/deli meats
  • Frozen dinners
  • Processed or packaged fish that has been pre-breaded, pre-fried, smoked or canned in brine

By cutting back on the foods listed above and cooking at home whenever possible, you will automatically lower your average daily sodium intake.

Sources

Information sheet: promoting fruit and vegetable consumption around the world. World Health Organization. Accessed online on May 29, 2014.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Strategies to prevent obesity and other chronic diseases: the CDC guide to strategies to increase the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2011. Accessed online on May 29, 2014.

Davy et al. Water consumption reduces energy intake at a breakfast meal in obese older adults. J Am Diet Assoc 2008;108:1236-1239.

Qaseem A, Dallas P, Forciea MA, et al. Dietary and pharmacologic management to prevent recurrent nephrolithiasis in adults: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med 2014;161:659-667.

Moss M. Salt Sugar Fat: How the Food Giants Hooked Us. Random House 2013.

Anderson CAM, Johnson RK, Kris-Etherton PM, Miller EA. Commentary on making sense of the science of sodium. Nutrition Today March/April 2015;50:66-71.

American Heart Association. Why should I limit sodium? Accessed online at http://www.heart.org/idc/groups/heart-public/@wcm/@hcm/documents/downloadable/ucm_300625.pdf  Accessed online on April 10, 2015.

American Heart Association Heart Blog. American Heart Association launches new sodium reduction campaign. Accessed online at http://blog.heart.org/american-heart-association-launches-new-sodium-reduction-campaign/ on April 10, 2015.

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