PTSD May Lead to Other Anxiety Disorders

Multiple diagnoses not uncommon in people with PTSD

Close up of stressed man
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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are two disorders that can occur at the same time. This is not entirely surprising given that PTSD is itself an anxiety disorder which can manifest in different ways from one person to the next.

As such, PTSD (a disorder caused by severe trauma) can lead to other disorders that each have their own set of unique causes, characteristics, and symptoms.

In addition to GAD, other co-occurring anxiety disorders can include pain disorder (PD), social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and specific phobia.

Understanding Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) goes well beyond the normal worrying and fretting that most people experience. It is defined as the excessive worry about subjects or events that persist at least six months.  

The anxiety is something the person can’t seem to control with the object of worry often switching from one thing to the next. The worrying ultimately takes up a lot of a person’s day with little relief to the point where relationships and work are affected.

A person is diagnosed with GAD in the presence of at least three of the following physical or cognitive symptoms:

  • edginess or restlessness
  • fatigue or tiring easily
  • impaired concentration or feeling as if one’s mind suddenly goes blank
  • irritability, either internalized or externalized
  • increased muscle aches or soreness
  • difficulty sleeping or unsatisfying sleep
  • physical symptoms of anxiety such as sweating, nausea, or diarrhea
  • difficulty carrying out day-to-day activities and responsibilities

In order to confirm a diagnosis, the symptoms cannot be explained by any other causes or conditions including prescription medications, alcohol use, illicit drug use, neurological problems, or other mental disorders.

The Relationship Between PTSD and GAD

Research suggests that roughly one in six people with PTSD experience GAD at some stage in their condition. It further suggests that the rate of GAD in people with PSTD is as much as six times higher than that found in the general population.

While the reasons for their coexistence are not entirely clear, we do know that worry is a common feature of PTSD. Since emotional responses are typically hyper-aroused in people with PTSD, worries can also be extended and exaggerated to the point where they can no longer be controlled.

In some individuals, worry may even be used as a coping mechanism.  It is not unusual to hear people with PSTD say that worrying about other events or troubles distracts them from the things that are more upsetting to them. It provides them distance from the thoughts and feelings they are unable to face.

Another possible explanation is that PTSD and GAD have similar origins. While trauma is the innate cause of PTSD, it can also be the trigger that leads to GAD.

Other Anxiety Disorders That Can Co-Exist With PTSD

In the same way that GAD can coexist with PTSD, other anxiety disorders that share similar origins and overlapping symptoms.

Among them:

  • Panic disorder (PD) is experienced in around seven percent of people with PTSD. It is characterized by frequent and unexpected panic attacks and ongoing concerns about future attacks. PD occurs in people with PTSD at a rate four times greater than that of the general population.
  • Social anxiety disorder occurs in 28 percent of people with PTSD and is defined by the intense fear and avoidance of social situations. Having PTSD may be the natural consequence of the disorder as both are characterized by feelings of isolation and “not fitting in.”
  • Specific phobia occurs in 31 percent of people with PTSD and is typified by the fear of specific objects (such as spiders, blood, or dogs) or situations (elevators, bridges, heights). People with PTSD are seven times more likely to have the specific phobia as the general public.
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been less studied in relation to PTSD, but research suggests that anywhere from four to 22 percent of people with PTSD may have OCD. OCD is characterized by excessive obsessive and/or intrusive thoughts as well as repetitive behaviors or thoughts (compulsions).

Source:

National Institute of Mental Health. "Anxiety Disorders." Bethesda, Maryland; updated March 2016.

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