Scaphoid Fracture of the Wrist

A Fall Can Result in this Common Wrist Fracture that is Slow to Heal

Doctor bandaging patient's wrist
Doctor bandaging patient's wrist. PhotoAlto/Eric Audras

A fall on an outstretched arm may result in more than a wrist pain or sprain. Such a fall may cause a fracture of the scaphoid (navicular) bone in the wrist. This small bone is one of the eight carpal bones in the wrist. It is sometimes called a snuff box fracture as that term is used for this area of the wrist.

Why a Scaphoid Fracture is Slow to Heal

The scaphoid sits below the thumb, and is shaped like a kidney bean.

This complex bone has a unique and limited blood supply that can be easily disrupted by a fracture. The scaphoid’s blood flow comes from a small vessel that enters the most distant part of the bone and flows back through the bone to give nutrition to the bone cells. Because there is only this one, small blood supply, a fracture in the center of the bone can actually sever the blood flow to the proximal portion of the bone. For this reason, scaphoid fractures need immediate diagnosis and treatment. Scaphoid fractures may heal very slowly or may not heal at all.

Scaphoid Fracture Diagnosis

If you have pain or deep aching on the thumb-side of the wrist, typically after a fall on an outstretched arm, you may have a scaphoid fracture. Other symptoms include swelling in the wrist, difficulty gripping objects, and tenderness or pain in the anatomical snuff box (a sunken space between tendons of the wrist).

Many patients are diagnosed with a wrist sprain when they actually have a fracture. Diagnosis is difficult because the fracture often doesn't appear on x-rays until weeks later after healing has begun. Because of this, it is common for physicians to treat a wrist injury as though it were a scaphoid fracture initially, and then repeat x-rays within two weeks.

Scaphoid Fracture Treatment

If it is a simple, non-displaced fracture, orthopedic physicians usually treat the injury with cast immobilization to see if the fracture heals in a timely manner. Repeat x-rays are taken over several weeks or months, and the physician can watch for appropriate healing, which can take 10 to 12 weeks. If it does not heal, surgery can be considered.

If the scaphoid fracture is displaced, the risk of nonunion is higher, and your physician may recommend initial surgery to reposition the bones. Also, if the fracture does not heal with cast treatment (immobilization), surgery will be recommended. This type of surgery involves pinning the bone in place with screws. New surgical technniques are being developed for the scaphoid, including arthroscopic surgery. Sometimes a bone graft may also be used, and research is being done into using Bone Morphogenic Proteins (BMP). A cast is used to immobilize the scaphoid bone after surgery.

Rehabilitation After Scaphoid Fracture

Rehabilitation is an important part of healing due to the long immobilization time needed to treat most scaphoid fractures.

Range-of-motion exercises for the wrist can be started after immobilization, followed by strengthening exercises for the wrist flexors and extensors. Supination, pronation, and grip exercises should also be added.

How to Prevent a Scaphoid Fracture

The best way to avoid a scaphoid fracture is to use proper protective gear whenever possible. Wrist guards are particularly useful during sports such as rollerblading, snowboarding and many contact sports.


Scaphoid Fracture of the Wrist, OrthoInfo, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, March, 2016.

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