Sports Injury First Aid Quick Tips

How to Treat a Sports Injury, Muscle Sprain, Strain or Pull

If you get injured during sports, here's what to do right away.  These injury treatment tips will keep your pain and injury from getting worse and may help you heal more quickly.

If You Have Pain - Stop Exercise Immediately

injury treatment tips
injury treatment tips. Alexa Miller / Getty Images

The first sign of any sports injury is usually sudden pain. And the first step in treating a sports injury is to prevent further injury or damage. This means stop activity immediately and start treatment. Resting an injured part is essential to healing, so don't exercise through pain, which will only make the situation worse and may delay healing by days or even weeks. So, if you have a sudden, sharp or shooting pain, get off the field and sit out the rest of the game.

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Reduce Swelling with Ice and Compression

Injury First Aid
Injury First Aid. Photo: Bradley Kanaris / Getty Images

The first thing that happens after an acute injury is swelling around the site of the injury. The first treatment for most acute soft tissue injuries (bruises, strains, springs, tears) is to prevent, stop and reduce swelling. When soft tissue is damaged, it swells or possibly bleeds internally. This swelling causes pain and loss of motion, which limits use of the muscles.

To reduce swelling, immediately apply ice to the injury, elevate the injured part above your heart and, use a compression wrap to help keep the swelling in check. Compression keeps the blood from pooling in the tissues. Don't wrap the bandages too tightly, but keep it snug.

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Ice the Right Way

Ice an injury
Ice an injury. PhotoAlto/Odilon Dimier / Getty Images

After most acute or  sudden sports injuries, ice is your friend. Ice reduces swelling and helps decrease pain. Applying ice over a compression wrap can help reduce swelling more that the wrap alone. The common treatment guidelines include applying ice to the injured part several times a day for 20 minutes each time. One of the easiest ways to ice an injury is with a bag of crushed ice or a bag of frozen vegetables, like peas. Let the area warm completely before applying ice again (to prevent frostbite). Never apply heat to an acute injury. Heat will increase circulation and increases swelling.

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Medicate When Appropriate

Athletes Often Use Pain Medication
Athletes Often Use Pain Medication. PNC / Getty Images

Pain is the primary symptom of the majority of sports injuries. Most soft-tissue injuries are painful because of the swelling and inflammation that occurs after an injury. Pain relief is often the main reason that people turn to over-the-counter (OTC) anti-inflammatory medications that work by reducing addressing the inflammation that occurs as a result of the injury. Over the counter pain medications are also useful for reducing the pain of muscle strains and muscle pulls.

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Start Moving As Soon As You Can

mobility exercises
mobility exercises. Hero Images/Getty Images

After a day or two of rest and ice most sprains, strains or other injuries will begin to heal. If your pain or swelling doesn't decrease after 48 hours, see your doctor.

Once healing begins, mobility exercises, gentle stretching and light massage may reduce adhesions and scar tissue formation and improve muscle function. Slowly increase range of motion in the injured joint or muscle. But be careful not to force any stretches, or you risk re-injury to the area.

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Rebuild Strenth and Joint Stability

balance and resistance band workout in gym
balance and resistance band workout in gym. Hero Images/Getty Images

After an injury, it is essential for joints to return to proper alignment. A good rehab program will include exercises that target joint stability, which is considered the most important thing to rebuild following a lower extremity injury.

Finally, after the injury has healed, strengthening exercises can be begun. Start with easy weights and use good form. Also See: Compund or Isolation Exercises for injury rehab.

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Should I Ice or Heat My Injury?

Ice or heat for injuries
Ice or heat for injuries. (c) Jamie McDonald/Getty Images

The treatment for acute sports injuries starts by applying ice. But after healing is well underway, heat may be helpful to ease muscle tension in chronic aches and pains. Learn more about when to use ice and when to use heat on injuries.



The American Orthopedic Society for Sports Medicine

The Use of Ice in the Treatment of Acute Soft-Tissue Injury. A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials; Chris Bleakley, et al, The American Journal of Sports Medicine 2004, Volume 32.

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