The School Day—How Much Time Experts Recommend

1
Time Spent On Homework

Mom guides boy in doing his homework.
Individual techer policies, grade level and subject all affect how much time your child should spend on homework. Catherine Delahaye via Getty Images

How much time each day is really optimal for homework? A general rule of thumb among teachers is ten minutes per grade level. This rule of thumb has been around for decades but gained legitimacy when a review by Harris Cooper of Duke University suggested that 10 minutes per grade level really is the best practice.

This amount can vary dramatically. It depends on your child's school homework policy, assigned teacher's philosophy, and the type of coursework your child is taking.

Expect less homework in schools that have a strong hands-on emphasis. Some educators refuse to give homework unless they see a strong need for at-home practice and will not regularly assign homework.

You can expect more homework in schools that focus on regular practice or have "flipped" classrooms where kids cover new material at home and practice skills at school where they are supervised. Another time you can expect more homework is in advanced level classes, like those that offer college credit to high school students.

2
Time Being Physically Active

Boys playing soccer to get physical acivity.
Extracurricular sports help get regular physical activity time in a busy school week. Alistair Berg via Getty Images

Children should get 60 minutes a day of physical activity according to numerous experts, including the American Association of Pediatrics, the American Heart Association, and even the U.S. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.  Parents could also benefit from being active for 60 minutes a day. 

3
Time Spent In Nature and The Outdoors

Kids run and play with their mom.
Undirected free play is important for children. CaiaImage/Paul Bradbury via Getty Imags

Many children spend much more time indoors than they did in previous generations. Various studies have linked the increase in indoor time to obesity, violent behavior, and increased vision problems. While it is important to note that some of these effects do not have enough research to say with certainty that indoor time is to blame for the problem, it makes sense that time spent outdoors and away from screens would be good for children and adults alike.

How much time outdoors should you aim for? The U.S. National Wildlife Federations suggests at least one hour a day. The nature advocacy group even includes this concept in its "Be Out There" campaign, calling it a "Green Hour."

The one hour a day rule is also supported by the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations for sixty minutes of unstructured, free play. You can help your child get their time being physically active, unstructured, and in nature by getting them outdoors. 

If you are looking for further ideas, check out this resource page for the National Wildlife Federation.

4
Average Time In Classroom

Girl looks out of a classroom window.
The average time spent at school varies between students and schools. Klaus Vedfeldt via Getty Images

It may seem like your child spends all of their time at school. The U.S. national average for 2007-2008 was 6.64 hours a day, for 180 days a year according to the National Center for Education Statistics. The figure includes the time from the start of class time to the end of daily class time.

What the figure does not include is transportation time and before or after school activities. The number of hours individual children spend involved at school can vary dramatically.

The number of school days has much less variation. In the same 2007-2008 school year, the National Center for Education Statistics showed that the number of school days in different states ranged from Colorado with 171 days to Florida with 184 days.

That means children are not in school at least 181 days a year. Hopefully, this is time parents can enjoy spending with their children.

5
Time Spent Socializing

Two boys visit at school.
Children and teens make important social connections in and out of school. Hero Images via Getty Iamges

Experts agree that school-age children need to have friends. Friends help children build social skills such as listening, sharing, and problem-solving. Children also learn how to handle their emotions through relationships with other children.

Research doesn't suggest any specific amount of time that is necessary for children to socialize with friends. What does seem to be clear is the quality of the friendships and whether or not the child is generally happy with their social time. Children or teens may have just a few friends or several friends.

If you feel that your child would benefit from having more or better quality friendships, start by encouraging your child to get involved in clubs or activities where they can meet new friends. If they seem a little shy or that they may need to practice meeting new peers, try coaching your child on how to talk to peers when they meet.

6
Time With Parents or Caregivers

Father plays airplane with his daughter before bed.
Getting quality time with parents or guardians is important for emotional well being. Hero Images via Getty Images

Don't stress about spending quality time with your kids. Research from a large-scale longitudinal study on the effects of time with parents compared to child and teen outcomes had some surprising results.

The biggest takeaway for parents is that time spent with a parent who is stressed out and moody can decrease positive outcomes, while more time does not show a strong benefit. The study, published in the Journal of Marriage and Family, found no relationship between the time a parent spent with their 3- to 11-year-olds and the child's academic achievement, behavior, and well-being. The study showed a minimal positive impact for teens who get into less trouble when they have six hours a week or more of positive, engaged time with parents.

That means that parents can and should take a big sigh of relief. These results suggest taking care of yourself first, not sacrificing or martyring yourself for your child. It won't work, anyway. Parents who find themselves stressed out about money can return to work or work more hours without guilt. 

It still stands to reason that your child will benefit from having some positive attention from you every day. You will also be in better position to spend time with them in the teen years when the benefits are more tangible. Be sure to enjoy your time together.

7
Time Spent Sleeping

Little Girl sleeping in bed with teddy bear.
Is your child getting enough sleep?. Chris Wang via Getty Images

The amount of time a child needs to sleep varies according to a child's age.  Recommended times for school-age children are:

  • 5-year-olds typically need 11-13 hours each night
  • 6- to 13-year-olds need 9-11 hours each night
  • 14 and older teens need at least 9 hours each night

Not getting enough sleep has been linked to falling asleep during school or missing school altogether, struggling to wake up in the mornings, and trouble learning or doing school work. If you are concerned that your child is not getting enough sleep, learn what symptoms to watch for along with steps you can take to improve their sleep habits.

8
Screen Time and Electronics Should Be Limited

Girl uses an electronic tablet.
Today's children and teens spend time looking at electronic screens at home and school. Óscar López Rogado via Getty Images

For years the American Association of Pediatrics had fairly strict recommendations limiting the use of any electronic media to a few hours a day. In late 2015, new guidelines were announced that are much less stringent. The new guidelines were created in response to how we are using media today.

How did today's media use lead to such a change? The use of electronic media and screen time has become a facet of almost every part of our lives. Children use tablets and computers at school. Cell phones with video messaging are used for daily communication. Internet use for homework is more likely to be required than optional. After a child's required use of electronic media, there is still entertainment and free time use.

The new recommendations are that electronic media use for entertainment be limited to one or two hours a day. Parents should focus on ensuring that the entertainment is of high quality.

The new recommendations also include parents creating screen-free zones in the home that will encourage children and teens to entertain themselves or relax without the use of electronic media. 

Perhaps the new guidelines aren't all that different, as far as parents are concerned. Electronic media use that parents can monitor is still limited to one or two hours a day.

9
Time Spent Eating

Child eats cereal at a table.
The time to eat several small meals or snacks can eat into your child's day. Momo Productions via Getty Images

Most experts recommend 20-30 minutes to eat a meal, and 10-15 minutes to eat a small snack. Even children's bodies need 20 minutes after eating begins to register feeling full. 

If you add up all of the time spent eating meals and snacks, you'll see that your child may spend a whopping 80 - 210 minutes a day eating.

10
Fitting It All in Your Child or Teen's Day

Dad wrestles with daughters while Mom looks on.
Keep your family time balanced and fun for the best outcomes. CaiaImage/Paul Bradbury via Getty Images

One hour exercise, one hour outdoors, homework and reading, time with parents, time with friends, time in school, time to eat, and time to sleep. You could try to complete all of these recommended times and activities one by one. Or, you can combine several of these activities to get them all done.

Time outdoors in nature, away from electronic media can be combined with exercise and even time with same-age friends. The time a child or teen needs to be engaged with a parent can be met by eating dinner together. Thirty minutes each night totals more than the six engaged hours from the longitudinal study cited.

Your child may even get some of their needed exercise and outdoor time during their 6.61 hours at school. The only activity you can't mix with others is sleep.

The key to fitting in everything a child needs is to establish a daily plan or school year routine. This can also reduce parent stress, keeping the time you spend with your child positive.

Sources:

Media and Children." Media and Children. American Academy of Pediatrics

Milkie, M. A., Nomaguchi, K. M. and Denny, K. E. (2015), Does the Amount of Time Mothers Spend With Children or Adolescents Matter?. Journal of Marriage and Family, 77: 355–372. doi: 10.1111/jomf.12170

Research Spotlight on Homework." Research Spotlight on Homework. National Education Association

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