Stimulants

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Stimulants are a class of psychoactive drug that increase activity in the brain. These drugs can temporarily elevate alertness, mood and awareness. Some stimulant drugs are legal and widely used. Many stimulants can also be addicting. Stimulants share many commonalities, but each has unique properties and mechanisms of action.

Drugs that are classed as stimulants include:

  • Caffeine
  • Nicotine
  • Cocaine
  • Methamphetamine
  • Prescription stimulants

Caffeine

Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive drug in the world, found in coffee, tea, cocoa, chocolate candy and soft drinks. While caffeine has several positive effects such as increasing energy and mental alertness, heavy use can cause symptoms such as anxiety and insomnia. Caffeine is physically addictive, and withdrawal symptoms can include headaches, fatigue and irritability.

Nicotine

Nicotine is considered one of the three most widely used psychoactive drugs in the world despite the fact that there are few (if any) medical uses for the drug. During the early to mid-twentieth century, smoking was considered fashionable. Reports of the adverse health consequences have led to cigarette use being increasingly shunned. However, However, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that in 2014, approximately 17 percent of U.S. adults over the age of 18 (around 40 million individuals) smoke cigarettes.

The National Institute on Drug Abuse reports that tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of death, disease and disability in the U.S., with cigarette use attributed to more than 480,000 premature deaths each year.

Cocaine

Cocaine is an illegal psychoactive drug made from the leaves of the coca tree.

During the late 1800s, psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud advocated the use of cocaine as a therapeutic treatment for psychological disorders, but later realized the addictive properties of the drug. During the early 1900s, cocaine was legal in the U.S. and could be found in many over-the-counter medications.

In 1906, the government began requiring manufacturers to label cocaine-containing products and began placing serious restrictions on distribution by the early 1920s. Cocaine is a restricted substance and its use and sale are considered illegal in most cases. Today, cocaine is the second most frequently used illegal drug in the United States.

Cocaine is rapidly absorbed from any administration point, including being snorted, inhaled, injected or taken orally. The drug reaches the brain quickly and is then distributed to other tissues throughout the body. Cocaine is rapidly metabolized by enzymes in the liver and plasma in approximately 30 to 60 minutes, but can be detected in urine tests for up to 12 hours after administration.

Methamphetamine

Today, methamphetamine, also known as meth, is one of the most commonly used illegal stimulants. Meth is extremely addictive and destroys tissues in the brain, which can lead to brain damage.

Prescription Stimulants

Prescription stimulants are a group of psychoactive drugs that affect the central nervous system and autonomic nervous system. Some of the effects of using these drugs include tremors, vasoconstriction, restlessness, tachycardia, insomnia, agitation and loss of appetite.

These agents were once widely used in obesity and weight loss treatments, but their addictive properties have caused them to be rarely used today for that purpose.  

Prescription stimulants are currently used to treat some physical and psychological disorders, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Common names of prescription stimulants include Ritalin, Adderall, and Dexedrine. Prescription stimulants work by enhancing the effects of dopamine and norepinephrine, and can lead to increased blood pressure, respiratory function and euphoria.

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Current cigarette smoking among adults in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/adult_data/cig_smoking/index.htm.

Jonnes, J. (1999). Hep-cats, narcs and pipe dreams: A history of America's romance with illegal drugs. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.

Julien, R. M. (2001). A primer of drug action. New York: Worth Publishers.

Juliano L. M., & Griffiths, R. R. (2004). A critical review of caffeine withdrawal: Empirical validation of symptoms and signs, incidence, severity and associated features. Psychopharmacology, 176, 1-29.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2008, July 22). Prescription Drugs: Abuse and Addiction. Retrieved from http://www.nida.nih.gov/ResearchReports/Prescription/Prescription4.html

National Institute on Drug Abuse. (n.d.). Tobacco/Nicotine Retrieved from http://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/tobacco-nicotine

Thompson, P. M., Hayashi, K. M. Simon, S. L. London, E. D., & others. (2004). Structural abnormalities in the brains of human subjects who use methamphetamine. Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 6028-6036.

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