Lists of AIDS-Defining Illnesses

28 Diseases Characteristic of Advanced HIV Infection

HIV virus in the bloodstream
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AIDS-defining illnesses are those which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has classified as being directly associated with advanced HIV infection. Many of these diseases are seen outside the realm of HIV but are considered AIDS-defining either because they are more prevalent in HIV-positive people or are rarely seen outside of immune suppressive disorder.

AIDS is defined as having a CD4 count of less than 200 cells/mL and/or a diagnosis of an AIDS-defining illness.

While some of these of diseases can occur in people who don't have HIV, they are only considered AID-defining in the presence of an HIV infection.

Opportunistic Infections vs. AIDS-Defining Illnesses

While AIDS-defining illnesses can also be classified as opportunistic infections, the opposite is not necessarily true. Opportunistic infections are those caused by otherwise common, harmless viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites which can that cause disease when immune defenses have been compromised.

Many opportunistic infections are not life-threatening and can develop even when a person's CD4 count is high. AIDS-defining illnesses, by contrast, tend to appear during later-stage disease when the CD4 count has dropped significantly.

Some opportunistic infections, such as herpes simplex, are only considered to be AIDS-defining when they spread (disseminates) beyond the tissue or organ where they are typically seen.

List of AIDS-Defining Illnesses

The current list of AIDS-defining illnesses according to the CDC are:

A Word From Verywell

If you have HIV, getting your CD4 count and viral load tested regularly is critical to your health and the prevention of HIV-associated diseases.

AIDS-defining illnesses are best avoided by starting antiretroviral therapy, ideally at the time of diagnosis.

If started at CD4 counts over 500, HIV treatment can reduce the risk of serious illness by 53 percent while increasing the likelihood of a normal to near-normal life expectancy.

Once started, HIV therapy must be continued for a lifetime and taken daily to ensure the sustained suppression of viral activity and to prevent the development of drug and multi-drug resistance.

Sources:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Appendix A: AIDS-Defining Conditions." MMWR. Updated November 20, 2008.

Djawe, K.; Buchacz, K.; Hsu, L., et al. "Mortality Risk After AIDS-Defining Opportunistic Illness Among HIV-Infected Persons—San Francisco, 1981–2012." The Journal of Infectious Diseases. June 3, 2015; 212 (9): 1366-1375.

INSIGHT START Study Group. "Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Early Asymptomatic HIV Infection."  New England Journal of Medicine. July 20, 2015; DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1506816.

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