What Are the Odds That I'll Get an STD?

Knowing the Risks and Lowering the Chances of an STD

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What are the odds that you'll get an STD if you have sex with a specific type of person in a specific sort of way? How high are the risks? Is it possible to lower those odds? Is there any way to be 100 percent protected from sexually transmitted diseases? 

Many people are concerned about the chances of getting an STD. Unfortunately, it's hard to give an easy answer to any given person's level of risk.

That's because there are a lot of things that factor into the likelihood of getting an STD during any sexual encounter. 

Which Factors Contribute To The Risk of Contracting an STD?

The odds of getting an STD depend on a number of factors. These include:

  • how you have sex (i.e., manual, anal, vaginal, oral)
  • how many partners you have, and what type of encounters you have with them
  • whether you use condoms or other barriers to practice safe sex
  • how consistently you use those barriers with different partners, and for different types of sex
  • whether or not you use sexual lubricants, and what kinds of lubricants you use
  • whether your partner already has an STD
  • if they do, what type of STD they have
  • the severity of their infection, as measured by viral load and other factors
  • your overall health and the health of your immune system
  • whether you have breaks in your skin or other STDs that might make you more susceptible to infection

    Assuming all of these things are known, it would seem like it would be simple to give you a risk assessment. Scientists would simply need to know the odds of transmitting the STD in question, during the particular type of sex you're having, with all of the other variables also taken into account. Then they could give you an idea of the actual odds of getting an STD in any particular sexual encounter.

    The problem is, they don't have that data. 

    There is some research into the odds of transmitting HIV during various types of intercourse. It's possible to tell that suppressive therapy reduces herpes transmission. However, it's really difficult to design a study that will tell scientists exactly how likely it is that an STD will be transmitted any particular time a person has sex. Doing so would require large numbers of people having sex with people whose infection status was known. They'd have to keep accurate logs of their sexual encounters and be tested on a regular basis. Furthermore, people infected with all the STDs of interest would have to be included in the study to see how those diseases spread. 

    That isn't practical. It's also not ethical, except in situations where people would be exposed to those risks anyway. 

    That's why doctors can't tell you the chances of getting an STD. They can tell you whether activities are risky or not. They can test you and encourage you to see test results from partners. They can help you figure out how to make the sex you're having safer. What they can't do is give you the odds. 

    How Can I Reduce My Chances of Getting an STD?

    We may be unable to pinpoint the statistics on getting an STD.

    We do, however, know a lot about how to lower those odds... no matter what they are.

    For one, you can be more aware of the risk you're undertaking by regularly getting screened for STDs. You can also talk to your partner before you have sex. Having this information can help you make smarter decisions about your sexual play.

    You can also reduce your risk by reliably practicing safe sex.

    What Does it Mean to Have Safer Sex? 

    Safer sex isn't a one time thing. Ideally, it means using a barrier method every time you engage in sex, whether vaginal, anal, or oral. Barrier methods such as condoms or dental dams are not 100 percent effective.

    They do, however, dramatically decrease your risk of contracting an STD.

    Only having sex within the context of a mutually monogamous relationship can also improve your odds of remaining STD free. That's particularly true if both you and your partner continue to be regularly screened for STDs and have open communication about your test results.

    Finally, remember that using a contraceptive may protect against pregnancy, but contraceptives don't necessarily protect against infections. Oral contraceptive pills and IUDs are great pregnancy protection, but they need to be used with barriers to protect against STD transmission. 

    Sources:

    McCormick AW, Abuelezam NN, Rhode ER, Hou T, Walensky RP, Pei PP, Becker JE, DiLorenzo MA, Losina E, Freedberg KA, Lipsitch M, Seage GR 3rd. Development, calibration and performance of an HIV transmission model incorporating natural history and behavioral patterns: application in South Africa. PLoS One. 2014 May 27;9(5):e98272. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098272.

     

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