What Does It Mean to Be Cisgender?

Cisgender and transgender are ways of expressing gender identity

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When a person is cisgender, they identify as the gender that matches the sex that they were assigned at birth. Cisgender is, as such, a complementary designation to the term transgender.

Note: A common mistake that people make when trying to use this term is to say someone is "cisgendered." You would not say that someone is "gayed" or "lesbianed." Transgendered is also sometimes incorrectly used where the word transgender is more appropriate.

A transgender woman is a person who was assigned male at birth but who identifies as a female. A cisgender woman is a person who was assigned female at birth and identifies as female.

Differences Between Sex and Gender

Although the terms are frequently used interchangeably, sex and gender are not the same things. Sex, in scientific terms, is a biological and physiological designation. It refers to both a person's chromosomes and the way that their genes are expressed. (XY individuals can develop physiologically female bodies if they have certain genetic conditions that affect hormone processing.)

In contrast, gender is a social construct. It refers to the social roles, behaviors, and expectations that are thought to be appropriate for men and women. Masculine and feminine are adjectives describing gender characteristics. Male and female describe sexual characteristics, although they are sometimes also used to describe gender.

Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation

Gender identity and sexual orientation are also not the same things. A cisgender person can be heterosexual or homosexual. bisexual or asexual. So can a transgender person. This is, in fact, one of the problems with lumping transgendered individuals into the LGBT (or LGBTQ or LGBTQQI) acronym.

It makes it more likely that people will conflate gender identity and sexual orientation. Really, they are two entirely different spectra.

Risks for Transgender People

Some transgender individuals do not medically or surgically transition to the gender they prefer. Transgender individuals have high rates of mistreatment by the medical system. They may also face structural risks, for example, transgender women engage in relatively high rates of sex work, compared to the general population. This is, in part, due to difficulties in finding employment.

It is worth noting that, just as the word for working on the assumption that all people are heterosexual is heteronormativity, the word for working on the assumption that all people are cisgender is cisnormativity. This is different than gender essentialism -- the idea that males and females must behave in certain, gender-specific ways.

Cisgender vs. Non-Transgender Terminology and Stigma

Many sexuality educators, LGBT activists, and individuals who are cognizant of gender politics use the term cisgender to reduce the stigma associated with a transgender identity. It is easy for people to say things like "transgender as opposed to normal gender" when describing individuals who identify as a gender other than the one they were assigned at birth.

However, that implies that transgender people are not normal. Using the term cisgender, in contrast, does not assign a relative value to either gender identity. Instead, it accepts transgender and cisgender identities as equally valid ways to experience gender.

Some transgender activists prefer the term non-transgender to cisgender. They see people self-identifying as cisgender as not wanting to be defined by the term transgender.

In truth, the purpose of both terms -- cisgender and non-transgender -- is the same. These terms are designed to encourage categorization of everyone's gender identity, removing the notion that there is a default or "normal" category.


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