10 Types of Psychological Theories

How Theories Are Used in Psychology

Theory
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The term theory is used with surprising frequency in everyday language. It is often used in to mean a guess, hunch, or supposition. You may even hear people dismiss certain information because it is "only a theory." It is important to note as you study psychology and other scientific topics, that a theory in science is not the same as the colloquial use of the term.

What Exactly Is a Theory?

A theory is a based upon a hypothesis and backed by evidence.

In science, a theory is not merely a guess. A theory is a fact-based framework for describing a phenomenon.

A theory presents a concept or idea that is testable.

Scientific American listed "theory" as one of their seven most misused scientific terms. And it is these misconceptions about the terms meaning that leads people to dismiss topics such as evolution and climate change as "merely theories," despite an abundance of overwhelming scientific evidence.

To the average layperson, the word theory means something of a guess. It might be true, or it might not be. But the word has a very different meaning in the realm of science when researchers are talking about empirical research that is back by scientific evidence.

While the parlance of everyday language suggests that a theory is just a hunch, the word has a very different meaning in science. A scientific theory presents an explanation about some aspect of human behavior or the natural world which is supported through repeated testing and experiments.

 This means that scientists have repeated these experiments and replicated these findings. They have also collected evidence that supports the theory.

Psychology Theories

In psychology, theories are used to provide a model for understanding human thoughts, emotions, and behaviors.

A psychological theory has two key components:

  1. It must describe a behavior
  2. It must make predictions about future behaviors

Throughout psychology's history, a number of theories have been proposed to explain and predict various aspects of human behavior. Some of these theories have stood the test of time and remain well-accepted today. Others have not held up under close scientific scrutiny and may have been rejected altogether or only partially accepted by researchers today.

Each theory has helped contribute to our knowledge base of the human mind and behavior. Some theories such as classical conditioning are still well-accepted today. Others, like Freud's theories, have not held up so well and have been mostly replaced by new theories that better explain human development.

The overall strength of a scientific theory hinges on its ability to explain diverse phenomena. What makes a theory so different from a mere guess or hunch is that a theory is testable. As new evidence and research is added, a theory may then be refine, modified, or even rejected if it does not fit with the latest scientific findings.

Types of Psychology Theories

There are many psychology theories, but most can be categorized as one of four key types:

1. Developmental Theories

Developmental theories provide a set of guiding principles and concepts that describe and explain human development. Some developmental theories focus on the formation of a particular quality, such as Kohlberg's theory of moral development. Other developmental theories focus on growth that happens throughout the lifespan, such as Erikson's theory of psychosocial development.

2. Grand Theories

Grand theories are those comprehensive ideas often proposed by major thinkers such as Sigmund FreudErik Erikson, and Jean Piaget.

Grand theories of development include psychoanalytic theorylearning theory and cognitive theory.

These theories seek to explain much of human behavior but are often considered outdated and incomplete in the face of modern research. Psychologists and researchers often use grand theories as a basis for exploration, but consider smaller theories and recent research as well.

3. Mini-Theories

Mini-theories describe a small, very particular aspect of development. A mini-theory might explain relatively narrow behaviors, such as how self-esteem is formed or early childhood socialization.

These theories are often rooted in the ideas established by grand theories, but they do not seek to describe and explain the whole of human behavior and growth.

4. Emergent Theories

Emergent theories are those that have been created relatively recently and are often formed by systematically combining various mini-theories. These theories often draw on research and ideas from different disciplines but are not yet as broad or far-reaching as grand theories.

The sociocultural theory proposed by theorist Lev Vygotsky is a good example of an emergent theory of development.

Different Psychological Theories

Some of the best-known theories of psychology focus on specific branches within psychology. These include:

Behavioral Theories

Behavioral psychology, also known as behaviorism, is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. Advocated by famous psychologists such as John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner, behavioral theories dominated psychology during the early half of the twentieth century. Today, behavioral techniques are still widely used in therapeutic settings to help clients learn new skills and behaviors.

Cognitive Theories

Cognitive theories of psychology are focused on internal states, such as motivation, problem solving, decision-making, thinking, and attention.

Developmental Theories

Theories of development provide a framework for thinking about human growth, development, and learning. If you have ever wondered about what motivates human thought and behavior, understanding these theories can provide useful insight into individuals and society.

Humanistic Theories

Humanistic psychology theories began to grow in popularity during the 1950s. While earlier theories often focused on abnormal behavior and psychological problems, humanist theories instead emphasized the basic goodness of human beings. Some of the major humanist theorists included Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.

Personality Theories

Personality psychology looks at the patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behavior that make a person unique. Some of the best known theories in psychology are devoted to the subject of personality including the trait theory of personality, the "big 5" theory of personality, and Erikson's theory of psychosocial development.

Social Psychology Theories

Social psychology is focused on helping us understand and explain social behavior. Social theories are generally centered on specific social phenomena, including group behavior, prosocial behavior, social influence, love and much more.

Reasons to Study Theories

In your psychology courses, you may find yourself questioning how necessary it is to learn about different psychology theories, especially those that are considered inaccurate or outdated.

However, all of these theories provide valuable information about the history of psychology, the progression of thought on a particular topic and a deeper understanding of current theories.

By understanding how thinking has progressed, you can get a better idea not only of where psychology has been, but where it might be going in the future.

A Word From Verywell

Studying other scientific theories provides a background in what researchers understand about how the natural world works. A solid scientific education can help you make better sense of what researchers mean when they talk about scientific research as well as improving your understanding of how scientific explanations for behavior and other phenomena in the natural world are formed, investigated, and accepted by the scientific community.

While debate continues to rage over hot topics such as climate change and evolution, it is worthwhile to study science and the theories that have emerged from such research, even when what is often revealed might come as a harsh or inconvenient truth. As Carl Sagan once explained, "It is far better to grasp the universe as it really is than to persist in delusion, however satisfying and reassuring."

Much of what we know about human thought and behavior has emerged thanks to various psychology theories. For example, behavioral theories demonstrated how conditioning can be used to learn new information and behaviors.

Some theories have fallen out of favor, while others remain widely accepted, but all have contributed tremendously to our understanding of human thought and behavior. By learning more about these theories, you can gain a deeper and richer understanding of psychology's past, present and future.

Sources:

McComas, WF. The Language of Science Education. Springer Science & Business Media; 2013.

Sagan, C. The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark. New York: Random House; 2011.

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