What Is Cerebral (Brain) Atrophy?

Brain Scans Can Show Cerebral (Brain) Atrophy
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What Is Cerebral (Brain) Atrophy?

The term cerebral means brain and atrophy means loss of cells or shrinkage. When our brains atrophy, the neurons and their connections waste away and the brain is literally getting smaller.

What Are the Symptoms of Brain Atrophy?

Atrophy in the brain may cause seizures, dementia (including memory loss, executive functioning impairment and aphasia (difficulty with expressing language or understanding it.)

What Causes Cerebral Atrophy?

Several different medical conditions can cause the brain to atrophy, including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, Lewy body dementia, stroke, cerebral palsy, Huntington's disease, and some infections such as AIDS and encephalitis.

What Parts of the Brain Are Typically Affected by Atrophy in Dementia?

In Alzheimer's disease, the hippocampus, which helps form new memories, and the cortex, which helps us think, plan and remember, are two areas that are especially affected by atrophy. However, the whole brain shrinks as well.

In frontotemporal dementia, the frontal and temporal lobes generally see the most atrophy. Atrophy of these areas of the brain often initially present as personality and behavior changes, whereas Alzheimer's disease often initially affects memory.

A study sought to identify which areas of the brain are generally more atrophied in Lewy body dementia.

Researchers found that the midbrain, hypothalamus and substantia innominata were generally the areas with the most atrophy. Being able to establish a pattern of where the atrophy is concentrated can potentially assist in correctly diagnosing the type of dementia.

In vascular dementia, the amount and location of the atrophy varies depending on whether there is a specific area that is affected by a stroke, for example, or multiple small blockages which are correlated with an overall reduced volume of the brain.

What Is "Age-Related Atrophy"?

As people age, a small amount of brain atrophy is expected. Thus, you might hear the doctor explain your MRI scan as showing "age-related atrophy." One study found that in healthy participants without dementia between the ages of 60-91, some amount of brain atrophy developed in as little as one year's time.

Can Brain Atrophy Be Prevented?

Some research has shown that physical exercise can reduce the speed of atrophy or even reverse some of the atrophy in the brain.

Other research suggests that supplementation with vitamin B (including vitamin B12, folic acid and vitamin B6) also helps slow brain atrophy.

Sources:

British Medical Journal. 2013;347:f4827. Frontotemporal Dementia. http://www.bmj.com/content/347/bmj.f4827

The Journal of Neuroscience, 2 December 2009, 29(48): 15223-15231. One-Year Brain Atrophy Evident in Healthy Aging. http://www.jneurosci.org/content/29/48/15223.full

Proceedings of the National Academy of Scientists of the United States of America (PNAS). May 20, 2013. Preventing Alzheimer’s disease-related gray matter atrophy by B-vitamin treatment. http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/05/16/1301816110.abstract

Stroke. 2011;42:133-138. Brain Atrophy and Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: A Prospective Follow-Up Study. http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/42/1/133.full.pdf

Whitwell JL, Weigand SD, Shiung MM, et al. Focal atrophy in dementia with Lewy bodies on MRI: A distinct pattern from Alzheimer’s disease. 2007;130(Pt 3). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2730778/.

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