What Is Transactional Leadership?

Transactional leadership
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Transactional leadership, also known as managerial leadership, focuses on the role of supervision, organization, and group performance. Leaders who implement this style focus on specific tasks and use rewards and punishments to motivate followers.

This theory of leadership was first described in by sociologist Max Weber and further explored by Bernard M. Bass in the early 1980s.

Basic Assumptions of Transactional Leadership

  • People perform their best when the chain of command is definite and clear.
  • Rewards and punishments motivate workers.
  • Obeying the instructions and commands of the leader is the primary goal of the followers.
  • Subordinates need to be carefully monitored to ensure that expectations are met.

This theory takes a behavioral approach to leadership by basing it on a system of rewards and punishments. Transactional leadership is often used in business; when employees are successful, they are rewarded; when they fail, they are reprimanded or punished.

Athletic teams also rely heavily on transactional leadership. Players are expected to conform to the team’s rules and expectations and are rewarded or punished based on their performance. Winning a game might mean accolades and bonuses while losing might lead to rejection and verbal castigation. Players often become highly motivated to do well, even if it means suffering pain and injury.

Unlike transformational leaders who tend to be forward-looking, transactional leaders are interested in merely maintaining the status quo.

Transformational leaders try to sell their ideas and vision to followers. Transactional leaders, on the other hand, tell group members what to do and when to do it.

How Transactional Leadership Works

In transactional leadership, rewards and punishments are contingent upon the performance of the followers.

The leader views the relationship between managers and subordinates as an exchange - you give me something for something in return. When subordinates perform well, they receive a reward. When they perform poorly, they will be punished in some way.

Rules, procedures, and standards are essential in transactional leadership.

Transactional leaders monitor followers carefully to enforce rules, reward success and punish failure. They do not, however, act as catalysts for growth and change within an organization. Instead, they are focused on maintaining this as they are and enforcing current rules and expectations.

These leaders do tend to be good at setting expectations and standards that maximize the efficiency and productivity of an organization. They tend to give constructive feedback regarding follower performance that allows group members to improve their output to obtain better feedback and reinforcement.

Followers are not encouraged to be creative or to find new solutions to problems. Research has found that transactional leadership tends to be most effective in situations where problems are simple and clearly defined.

It can also work well in crisis situations where the focus needs to be on accomplishing certain tasks. By assigning clearly defined duties to particular individuals, leaders can ensure that those things get done. In times of crisis, transactional leaders can help maintain the status quo and “keep the ship afloat,” so to speak.

Transactional leaders focus on the maintenance of the structure of the group. They are tasked with letting group members know exactly what is expected, articulating the rewards of performing tasks well, explaining the consequences of failure, and offering feedback designed to keep workers on task.

While transactional leadership can be useful in some situations, it is considered insufficient in many cases and may prevent both leaders and followers from achieving their full potential.

References:

Bass, B. M,(1985), Leadership and Performance, N.Y. Free Press.

Burns, J.M. (1978) Leadership. New York. Harper & Row

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