Why Do We Get Diarrhea?

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Why do we get diarrhea?. VikaValter/Getty Images

Diarrhea. We all get it from time to time, but no one wants to talk about it. It's embarassing, uncomfortable and gross. But have you ever thought about why we get it? Sometimes it's due to the foods we eat, sometimes it's caused by a virus or bacteria and other times it could be caused by a disease that affects the digestive system itself.

Here, we'll talk about some of the most common causes of diarrhea and what exactly happens to our bodies when we get it.

Viruses

Some of the most common causes of diarrhea are viral infections. Norovirus, rotavirus and hepatitis A are all viruses that frequently cause diarrhea. Rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrhea in children in the world. However, the introduction of a vaccine to prevent it in the US has dramatically reduced the number of cases in the country in recent years.

Bacteria

Diarrhea can be caused by several types of bacteria. Some of the most common causes of food contamination or "food poisoning" are bacterial. E. coli, Salmonella and Listeria are all frequent culprits and cause for recalls when they are found in our food supply.

Although these bacteria cause diarrhea (and occasionally vomiting), most people who get them recover without treatment. In some severe cases, people with these infections may need to be treated with antibiotics or hospitalized.

Digestive System Diseases and Disorders

Some people get diarrhea due to diseases and disorders of the digestive system. Some examples include:

The exact reason for diarrhea varies if you have one of these disorders or diseases.

Treatment will depend on the cause as well. If you are concerned your diarrhea might be caused by one of these diseases or disorders, talk to your health care provider.

Other Causes

Diarrhea can be caused by parasites such a Giardia as well. This parasite gets into the digestive tract and affects the absorption of fluids, resulting in frequent watery stools. It is often found in mountainous regions in the United States but is common worldwide.

Another frequent cause of diarrhea is as a side effect of medications - especially antibiotics. If you take an antibiotic and it causes diarrhea, talk to your health care provider to determine whether or not it is something you should be concerned about.

Traveler's diarrhea occurs when people travel to other countries around the world and eat their food or drink their water because it is more likely to be contaminated with bacteria, viruses or parasites. This is not a concern when traveling to most developed countries but is a frequent problem for people that visit most countries in Asia (other than Japan), Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean.

If you will be traveling to one of these areas, talk to your health care provider about taking medications with you to treat infections should they occur.

 

When you have diarrhea caused by a germ - whether it's a bacteria, virus or parasite, the normal function of your body's GI system is disrupted. Stool is what is left over after your body has digested all of the fluid and nutrients it needs from the food you eat. When you get an infection that disrupts that function, your GI systems doesn't absorb nutrients and fluids adequately and it passes through your body more quickly than it should, leading to frequent, watery bowel movements.

Now that you know why you get diarrhea, find out how to treat it:

Sources:

"What I Need to Know About Diarrhea." National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC) 25 Nov 13. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). National Institutes of Health (NIH). 17 Jul 14.

"Diarrhea." National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC) 25 Nov 13. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). National Institutes of Health (NIH). 17 Jul 14.

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