Why Won't My Ears Pop?

Woman with ear pain on plane
Woman with ear pain on plane. Izabela Habur/Getty Images

We were driving down the canyon after a hiking trip when my son started complaining of ear pain. "Swallow," I told him — which he did, with no success. By the time we got home, his ears had still not popped, and they hurt. Why won't your ears pop?

When you ascend or descend rapidly by flying, diving, or driving up and down a steep mountain, the air in your middle ear space can sometimes have trouble adjusting to the pressure.

Under normal circumstances, you should have the sensation of your ears popping as your middle ear adjusts to the ambient pressure (pressure of where you are).

Ways to Pop Your Ears

Every time you swallow, you will likely hear a faint click or pop as air moves from the upper part of your throat and nose through your eustachian tube into your middle ear. Your body naturally equalizes pressure between your middle ear and your outer ear in this manner. However when you change altitude by driving or flying, or you have other problems that cause problems with equalizing pressure, you will want to try these tricks to help to equalize the pressure in your ears.

  • swallowing
  • yawning
  • chew gum
  • suck on hard candy
  • valsalva maneuver — try to forcefully breath out while mouth is shut and nose is pinched

If you know that you have problems with equalizing pressure, you can take over the counter decongestants or nasal sprays to minimize the problem.

For infants, using a bottle or a pacifier can help create the same actions as the list above. If your ears cannot keep up with the pressure changes and don't pop, you can experience ear pain and even get a ruptured eardrum (also called barotrauma).

If you feel pressure, pain, or the sensation of your ears being plugged and they won't pop, you may have an underlying ear disorder that is affecting the function of your auditory (eustachian) tube.

In my son's case, the inability to equalize the pressure was related to fluid in the ear. The following problems can affect the ability of your ears to pop.

Fluid in the Ear

Fluid in the ear may prevent ears from popping as the thickened fluid blocks the auditory tube, which prevents fluid from draining into the back of the throat. Sometimes this is caused by infection. Another reason for retaining fluid in the ear is due to the enlargement of surrounding structures, such as the adenoids or sinus tissue. If the auditory tube is being blocked by surrounding tissue, the removal of this tissue may also be necessary.

Fluid in the ear is usually treated by the surgical insertion of synthetic ear tubes, which allows the ear to drain and equalize pressure. You should know that if you have ear tubes, you will not be able to have your ears pop. This is because the tube through your ear drum will automatically equalize pressure.  Other names for fluid in the ear include serous otitis media, glue ear, and otitis media with effusion.

Excessive Ear Wax

Too much ear wax (cerumen) can also impair the function of your auditory tube. This doesn't mean you should run out and buy some ear candles or stick a cotton swab down your ear, as this will likely just push the wax down further.

This type of ear wax blockage needs to be removed by a professional, preferably an ear, nose and throat doctor. There are a few ways that your doctor can remove the wax, and it can be done in their office. Wax can be removed with special ear drops that dissolve the wax, by irrigation, or with a special instrument called a cerumen spoon, which the doctor uses to "dig" the wax out.


Too much mucus can gum up your auditory tube and make it difficult to maintain the pressure in the middle ear space. Congestion related to allergies can be helped by taking a decongestant medication before getting on an airplane or going on a road trip with elevation gain.

A cold virus is also a common cause of congestion, but if it lasts longer than about three weeks, you may be dealing with allergies or another condition that should be evaluated by a physician.

Patulous Eustachian Tube

Patulous eustachian tube is a very rare disorder in which the auditory tube fails to close and remains open all of the time. Besides feeling as though your ears are plugged, symptoms of patulous eustachian tube include:

  • tinnitus
  • autophony (when your voice seems abnormally loud to you)
  • hearing your own breathing.

Other Reasons 

Other conditions that may be associated with auditory tube dysfunction include sinusitis, nasal polyps, enlarged turbinates, and tonsillitis.

If your ears do not pop and you feel as though they are clogged or you are experiencing significant ear pain, you should make an appointment with a qualified doctor. If you have symptoms of a ruptured ear drum, such as fluid or blood draining from the ear, intense earache followed by a pop and sudden relief of pain, or difficulty hearing, you should see a doctor immediately.


American Academy of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. (2016). Ears and Altitude. Access February 2, 2017 from http://www.entnet.org/content/ears-and-altitude.

Centers For Disease Control and Prevention. Ear Infections. Get Smart: When Antibiotics Don't Work. Accessed May 15, 2012 from: http://www.cdc.gov/getsmart/antibiotic-use/URI/ear-infection.html

Medline Plus. Wax Blockage. Accessed May 15, 2012 from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000979.htm

New England Journal of Medicine. Patulous Eustachian Tube. Accessed: May 16, 2012 from http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMicm040779

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